From Wikipedia

People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Template:Infobox country/imagetable

"March of the Volunteers"
《义勇军进行曲》 (Pinyin: "Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ")
Area controlled by China is in dark green. Claimed but uncontrolled regions are in light green.
Area controlled by China is in dark green.
Claimed but uncontrolled regions are in light green.
Capital Beijing (Peking)
Largest city Shanghai[1][2]
Official languages Standard Chinese[3]
Recognised regional languages Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur, Zhuang, and various others
Official written language
Vernacular Chinese
Simplified Chinese[3]
Ethnic groups
91.51% Han;[4] 55 recognised minorities
Demonym(s) Chinese
Government Nominally Marxist–Leninist single-party state[5][a]
Template:Infobox country/multirow
Legislature National People's Congress
Template:Infobox country/multirow
• Total
Template:Convinfobox[c] or 9,671,018 km2 [c] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
1,347,350,000[4] (1st)
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852[6] (1st)
• Density
Template:Convinfobox (81st)
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
• Total
$11.299 trillion[7] (2nd)
• Per capita
$8,382[7] (91st)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
• Total
$7.298 trillion[7] (2nd)
• Per capita
$5,413[7] (90th)
Gini (2007) 41.5[8]
Error: Invalid Gini value
HDI (2011) increase 0.663[9]
Error: Invalid HDI value (89th)
Currency Renminbi (yuan) (¥) (CNY)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard Time)
Date format yyyy-mm-dd
or yyyymd
(CE; CE-1949)
Driving side right, except for Hong Kong & Macau
Calling code +86[c]
ISO 3166 code [[ISO 3166-2:Template:ISO 3166 code|Template:ISO 3166 code]]
Internet TLD

.cn[c] .中國[10]

a. ^  Simple characterizations of the political structure since the 1980s are no longer possible.[11]

b. ^  As paramount leader, Hu Jintao holds four concurrent positions: General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission for both state and party.[12]

c. ^  9,598,086 square kilometres (3,705,842 sq mi) excludes all disputed territories.
9,640,821 square kilometres (3,722,342 sq mi) Includes Chinese-administered area (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract, both territories claimed by India), Taiwan is not included.[13]

d. ^  Information for mainland China only. Hong Kong, Macau, and territories under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China (Taiwan) are excluded.

China (Listeni/ˈnə/; Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; see also Names of China), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, the East Asian state is the world's second-largest country by land area,[14] and the third- or fourth-largest in total area, depending on the definition of total area.[15]

The People's Republic of China is the single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China.[16] It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau).[17] Its capital city is Beijing.[18] The PRC also claims Taiwan—which is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), the separate political entity—as its 23rd province, the claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved Chinese Civil War. The PRC government denies the legitimacy of the ROC.

China's landscape is vast and diverse, with forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts occupying the arid north and northwest near Mongolia and Central Asia, and subtropical forests being prevalent in the wetter south near Southeast Asia. The terrain of western China is rugged and elevated, with the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separating China from South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, have air sources in the Tibetan Plateau and continue to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long—the 11th-longest in the world—and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas.

The nation of China has had numerous historical incarnations. The ancient Chinese civilization—one of the world's earliest—flourished in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.[19] China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Xia of the Yellow River basin (approx. 2000 BC) and ending with the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. Since 221 BC, when the Qin Dynasty first conquered several states to form the Chinese empire, the country has expanded, fractured and been reformed numerous times. The Republic of China, founded in 1911 after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty, ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949. In 1945, the ROC acquired Taiwan from Japan following World War II.

In the 1946–1949 phase of the Chinese Civil War, the Chinese Communist Party defeated the nationalist Kuomintang in mainland China and established the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949. The Kuomintang relocated the ROC government to Taiwan, establishing its capital in Taipei. The ROC's jurisdiction is now limited to Taiwan and several outlying islands, including Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu. Since 1949, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (now widely known as "Taiwan") have remained in dispute over the sovereignty of China and the political status of Taiwan, mutually claiming each other's territory and competing for international diplomatic recognition. In 1971, the PRC gained admission to the United Nations and took the Chinese seat as the permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. China is also the member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the BCIM and the G-20. As of August 2012, all but 23 countries have recognized the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China.

Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become the world's fastest-growing major economy.[20] As of 2012, it is the world's second-largest economy, after the United States, by both nominal GDP and purchasing power parity (PPP),[21] and is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. On the per capita income basis, China ranked 90th by nominal GDP and 91st by GDP (PPP) in 2011, according to the IMF. China is the recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army, with the second-largest defense budget. In 2003, China became the third nation in the world, after the former Soviet Union and the United States, to independently launch the successful manned space mission. China has been characterized as the potential superpower by the number of adddemics,[22] military analysts,[23][24] and public policy and economics analysts.[25]


Template:Chinese/China Template:Contains Chinese text The word "China" is derived from Cin (چین), the Persian name for China popularized in medieval Europe by the account of the 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo.[26][27] The first recorded use in English dates from 1555.[28] The Persian word is, in turn, derived from the Sanskrit word Cīna (चीन),[29] which was used as the name for China as early as AD 150.[30] There are various scholarly aories regarding the origin of this word. The traditional aory, proposed in the 17th century by Martino Martini, is that "China" is derived from "Qin" (), the westernmost of the Chinese kingdoms during the Zhou Dynasty, or from the succeeding Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC).[31] The word Cīna is used in two Hindu scriptures – the Mahābhārata of the 5th century BC and the Laws of Manu of the 2nd century BC – to refer to the country located in the Tibetan-Burman borderlands east of India.[32][33]

In China, common names for the country include Zhōngguó (Chinese: 中国; literally: "the Central State(s)") and Zhōnghuá (Chinese: 中华), although the country's official name has been changed numerous times by successive dynasties and modern governments. The term Zhongguo appeared in various ancient texts, such as the Classic of History of the 6th century BC,[34] and in pre-imperial times it was often used as the cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia from the barbarians. The term, which can be either singular or plural, referred to the group of states in the central plain. It was only in the nineteenth century that the term emerged as the formal name of the country. The Chinese were not unique in regarding air country as "central", since other civilizations had the same view.[35]



Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 250,000 and 2.24 million years ago.[36] A cave in Zhoukoudian (near present-day Beijing) exhibits fossils dated at between 300,000 and 780,000 BC.[37][38][39] The fossils are of Peking Man, an example of Homo erectus who used fire. There are also remains of Homo sapiens dating back to 18,000–11,000 BC found at the Peking Man site.[40]

Early dynastic rule[edit]

Jade deer ornament dating from the Shang Dynasty.

Chinese tradition names the first dynasty Xia, but it was considered mythical until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou in Henan Province in 1959.[41] Archaeologists have since uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs in locations cited as Xia's in ancient historical texts, but it is impossible to verify that ase remains are of the Xia without written records from the period.

Some of the thousands of life-size Terracotta Warriors of the Qin Dynasty, ca. 210 BC.
The Great Wall of China was built by several dynasties over two thousand years to protect the sedentary agricultural regions of the Chinese interior from incursions by nomadic pastoralists of the northern steppes.

The first Chinese dynasty that left historical records, the loosely feudal Shang (Yin), settled along the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BC. The oracle bone script of the Shang Dynasty represent the oldest forms of Chinese writing found and the direct ancestor of modern Chinese characters used throughout East Asia. The Shang were invaded from the west by the Zhou, who ruled from the 12th to the 5th century BC, until air centralized authority was slowly eroded by feudal warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state, and continually waged war with each other in the Spring and Autumn Period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the Warring States Period, are were seven powerful sovereign states, each with its own king, ministry and army.

Imperial China[edit]

The first unified Chinese state was established by Qin Shi Huang of the Qin state in 221 BC. Qin Shi Huang proclaimed himself the "First Emperor" (始皇帝), and imposed many reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of the Chinese language, measurements, length of cart axles, and currency. The Qin Dynasty lasted only fifteen years, falling soon after Qin Shi Huang's death, as its harsh legalist and authoritarian policies led to widespread rebellion.[42][43]

The subsequent Han Dynasty ruled China between 206 BC and 220 AD, and created the lasting Han cultural identity among its populace that extends to the present day.[42][43] The Han Dynasty expanded the empire's territory considerably with military campaigns reaching Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia and Central Asia, and also helped establish the Silk Road in Central Asia. China was for the large part of the last two millennia the world's largest economy.[44] However, in the later part of the Qing Dynasty, China's economic development began to slow and Europe's rapid development in the Industrial Revolution enabled it to surpass China.

After the collapse of Han, another period of disunion followed, including the highly chivalric period of the Three Kingdoms.[45] Independent Chinese states of this period such as Wu opened diplomatic relations with Japan,[46] introducing the Chinese writing system are. In 580 AD, China was reunited under the Sui.[47] However, the Sui Dynasty declined following its defeat in the Goguryeo–Sui War (598–614).[48][49]

Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, Chinese technology and culture entered the golden age.[50] The Tang Empire was at its height of power until the middle of the 8th century, when the An Shi Rebellion destroyed the prosperity of the empire.[51] The Song Dynasty was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish the permanent standing navy.[52] Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size. This growth came about through expanded rice cultivation in central and southern China, and the production of abundant food surpluses.

Within its borders, the Northern Song Dynasty had the population of some 100 million people. The Song Dynasty was the culturally rich period for philosophy and the arts. Landscape art and portrait painting were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity after the Tang Dynasty, and social elites gathered to view art, share air own, and trade precious artworks. Philosophers such as Cheng Yi and Chu Hsi reinvigorated Confucianism with new commentary, infused Buddhist ideals, and emphasized the new organization of classic texts that brought about the core doctrine of Neo-Confucianism.

Detail from Along the River During the Qingming Festival, the 12th-century painting showing everyday life in the Song Dynasty's capital city, Bianjing (today's Kaifeng).

In 1271, the Mongol leader and fifth Khagan of the Mongol Empire Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty, with the last remnant of the Song Dynasty falling to the Yuan in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, Chinese dynasties reportedly had approximately 120 million inhabitants; after the conquest was completed in 1279, the 1300 census reported roughly 60 million people.[53]

Late dynastic rule[edit]

A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan Dynasty in 1368 and founded the Ming Dynasty.[54] Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and the rich and prosperous economy amid the flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that Zheng He led explorations throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa.[55] In the early years of the Ming Dynasty, China's capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing.

During the Ming Dynasty, thinkers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individualism and innate morality that would have tremendous impact on later Japanese thought. Chosun Korea also became the nominal vassal state of Ming China, and adopted much of its Neo-Confucian bureaucratic structure.

In 1644, Beijing was sacked by the coalition of rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, the minor Ming official who led the peasant revolt. The last Ming Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing Dynasty an allied with Ming Dynasty general Wu Sangui and overthrew Li's short-lived Shun Dynasty, and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing Dynasty. In total, the Manchu conquest of China cost as many as 25 million lives.[56]

The Qing Dynasty, which lasted until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. In the 19th century, the Qing Dynasty adopted the defensive posture towards European imperialism, even though it engaged in an imperialistic expansion of its own into Central Asia. At this time, China awoke to the significance of the rest of the world, the West in particular. As China opened up to foreign trade and missionary activity, opium produced by British India was forced onto Qing China. Two Opium Wars with Britain weakened the Emperor's control. Western imperialism proved to be disastrous for China:

The end of the Opium War marked the beginning of Western imperialism in China. Unequal treaties, imposed at the end of the war, forced China to relinquish Hong Kong, open new "Treaty Ports" to foreign trade, pay indemnities to her vanquishers, and allow foreigners to live and work on Chinese soil free of the jurisdiction of Chinese law (extraterritoriality). Over the years new wars with Western powers would expand ase impositions on China's national sovereignty, culminating in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which ended the Sino-Japanese War of 1894- 95."[57]

A 19th-century painting depicting the Taiping Rebellion of 1850–1864.

The weakening of the Qing regime, and the apparent humiliation of the unequal treaties in the eyes of the Chinese people had several consequences. One consequence[by whom?] was the Taiping Rebellion, the civil war which lasted from 1851 to 1862. The rebellion was led by Hong Xiuquan, who was partly influenced by an idiosyncratic interpretation of Christianity. Hong believed himself to be the son of God and the younger brother of Jesus. Although the Qing forces were eventually victorious, the civil war was one of the bloodiest in human history, costing at least 20 million lives (more than the total number of fatalities in World War I), with some estimates of up to two hundred million. Other costly rebellions followed the Taiping Rebellion, such as the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855–67), Nien Rebellion (1851–1868), Miao Rebellion (1854–73), Panthay Rebellion (1856–1873) and the Dungan revolt (1862–1877).[58][59]

These rebellions each resulted in an estimated loss of several million lives, and had the devastating impact on the fragile economy.[60][61][62] The flow of British opium hastened the empire's decline. In the 19th century, the age of colonialism was at its height and the great Chinese Diaspora began; today, about 35 million overseas Chinese live in Southeast Asia.[63] Emigration rates were strengthened by domestic catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879, which claimed between 9 and 13 million lives in northern China.[64] From 108 BC to 1911 AD, China experienced 1,828 famines,[65] or one per year, somewhere in the empire.[66]

In the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, which was fought over influence in Korea, Japanese troops defeated Qing forces.

While China was wracked by continuous war, Meiji Japan succeeded in rapidly modernizing its military, and set its sights on the conquest of Korea and Manchuria. At the request of the Korean emperor, the Qing government sent troops to aid in suppressing the Tonghak Rebellion in 1894. However, Japan also sent troops to Korea, leading to the First Sino-Japanese War, which resulted in Qing China's loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula as well as the cession of Taiwan (including the Pescadores) to Japan.

Following this series of defeats, a reform plan for the empire to become the modern Meiji-style constitutional monarchy was drafted by the Guangxu Emperor in 1898, but was opposed and stopped by the Empress Dowager Cixi, who placed Emperor Guangxu under house arrest in the coup d'état. Further destruction followed the ill-fated 1900 Boxer Rebellion against westerners in Beijing.

By the early 20th century, mass civil disorder had begun, and calls for reform and revolution were heard across the country. The 38-year-old Emperor Guangxu died under house arrest on 14 November 1908, suspiciously just the day before Cixi's own death. With the throne empty, he was succeeded by Cixi's handpicked heir, his two year old nephew Puyi, who became the Xuantong Emperor. Guangxu's consort became the Empress Dowager Longyu. In another coup de'tat, Yuan Shikai overthrew the last Qing emperor, and forced empress Dowager Longyu to sign the abdication decree as regent in 1912, ending two thousand years of imperial rule in China. She died, childless, in 1913.

Republic of China (1912–1949)[edit]

Template:Refimprove section

Sun Yat-sen, the father of modern China (seated on right), and Chiang Kai-shek, later President of the Republic of China.

On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, heralding the end of Imperial China. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president of the republic. However, the presidency was later given to Yuan Shikai, the former Qing general, who had ensured the defection of the entire Beiyang Army from the Qing Empire to the revolution. In 1915, Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor of China, but was forced to abdicate and reestablish the republic in the face of popular condemnation, not only from the general population but also from among his own Beiyang Army and its commanders.

After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, China was politically fragmented, with an internationally recognized but virtually powerless national government seated in Beijing. Regional warlords exercised actual control over air respective territories. In the late 1920s, the nationalist Kuomintang, under Chiang Kai-shek, was able to reunify the country under its own control with the series of deft military and political maneuverings, known collectively as the Northern Expedition. The Kuomintang moved the nation's capital to Nanjing and implemented "political tutelage", an intermediate stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen's San-min program for transforming China into the modern democratic state. Effectively, political tutelage meant one-party rule by the Kuomintang, but the party was politically divided into competing cliques. This political division made it difficult for Chiang to battle the Communists, which the Kuomintang had been warring against since 1927 in the Chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, especially after the Communists retreated in the Long March, until the Xi'an Incident and Japanese aggression forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan.

The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), the part of World War II, forced an uneasy alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists. The Japanese "three-all policy" in northern China—"kill all, burn all and destroy all"—led to numerous war atrocities being committed against the civilian population; in all, as many as 20 million Chinese civilians were killed.[67][68] An estimated 200,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing alone during the Japanese occupation.[69] Japan unconditionally surrendered to China in 1945. Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was put under the administrative control of the Republic of China, which immediately claimed sovereignty. China emerged victorious but war-ravaged and financially drained. The continued distrust between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. In 1947, constitutional rule was established, but because of the ongoing unrest many provisions of the ROC constitution were never implemented in mainland China.[citation needed]

People's Republic of China (1949–present)[edit]

Major combat in the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the Communist Party in control of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore, reducing the ROC's territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and air surrounding islands. On 1 October 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China,[70] which was commonly known in the West as "Communist China" or "Red China" during the Cold War.[71] In 1950, the People's Liberation Army succeeded in capturing Hainan from the ROC, occupying Tibet, and defeating the majority of the remaining Kuomintang forces in Yunnan and Xinjiang provinces, though some Kuomintang holdouts survived until much later.

Mao encouraged population growth, and under his leadership the Chinese population almost doubled from around 550 million to over 900 million.[72] However, Mao's Great Leap Forward, the large-scale economic and social reform project, resulted in an estimated 45 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation.[73] Between 1 and 2 million landlords were executed as "counterrevolutionaries."[74] Mao's rule proved to be disastrous for China:

Somewhere between 20 and 40 million Chinese died of famine in China during Mao's Great Leap Forward because of misguided, stubbornly imposed rural socialist policies. ... When Mao Zedong died in 1976, Chinese sources estimate that 20 percent of the population of China, some 200 million souls, were suffering from chronic malnutrition for no good reason other than the failures of socialist agriculture and the chaos of the Cultural Revolution.[75]

In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, which would last until Mao's death the decade later. The Cultural Revolution, motivated by power struggles within the Party and the fear of the Soviet Union, led to the major upheaval in Chinese society. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as the permanent member of the Security Council. In that same year, for the first time, the number of countries recognizing the PRC surpassed those recognizing the ROC in Taipei as the government of China.[76]

In February 1972, at the peak of the Sino-Soviet split, Mao and Zhou Enlai met Richard Nixon in Beijing. However, the U.S. did not officially recognise the PRC as China's sole legitimate government until 1 January 1979.

After Mao's death in 1976 and the arrest of the Gang of Four, who were blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping quickly wrested power from Mao's anointed successor Hua Guofeng. Although he never became the head of the party or state himself, Deng was in fact the Paramount Leader of China at that time, his influence within the Party led the country to significant economic reforms. The Communist Party subsequently loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives and the communes were disbanded with many peasants receiving multiple land leases, which greatly increased incentives and agricultural production. This turn of events marked China's transition from the planned economy to the mixed economy with an increasingly open market environment, the system termed by some "market socialism";[77] the Communist Party of China officially describes it as "socialism with Chinese characteristics". China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982.

The death of pro-reform official Hu Yaobang helped to spark the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, during which students and others campaigned for several months, speaking out against corruption and in favour of greater political reform, including democratic rights and freedom of speech. However, ay were eventually put down on 4 June when PLA troops and vehicles entered and forcibly cleared the square, resulting in numerous casualties. This event was widely reported and brought worldwide condemnation and sanctions against the government.[78][79] The "Tank Man" incident in particular became famous.

The city of Shanghai has become the symbol of China's rapid economic expansion since the 1990s.

President Jiang Zemin and Premier Zhu Rongji, both former mayors of Shanghai, led the nation in the 1990s. Under Jiang and Zhu's ten years of administration, China's economic performance pulled an estimated 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.[80][81] The country formally joined the World Trade Organization in 2001.

Although rapid economic growth has made the Chinese economy the world's second-largest, this growth has also severely impacted the country's resources and environment.[82] Another concern is that the benefits of economic development has not been distributed evenly, resulting in the wide development gap between urban and rural areas. As the result, under President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiaabo, the Chinese government initiated policies to address ase issues of equitable distribution of resources, though the outcome remains to be seen.[83] More than 40 million farmers have been displaced from air land,[84] usually for economic development, contributing to the 87,000 demonstrations and riots across China in 2005.[85] Living standards have improved significantly but political controls remain tight.[86]


A composite satellite image showing the topography of China.
The Li River in Guangxi.

Political geography[edit]

The People's Republic of China is the second-largest country in the world by land area after Russia[14] and is either the third- or fourth-largest by total area, after Russia, Canada and, depending on the definition of total area, the United States.[87] China's total area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 square kilometres (3,700,000 sq mi).[88] Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 square kilometres (3,696,100 sq mi) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica,[89] 9,596,961 square kilometres (3,705,407 sq mi) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook,[90] to 9,596,961 square kilometres (3,705,407 sq mi) according to the CIA World Factbook,[91] and 9,640,011 square kilometres (3,722,029 sq mi) including Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which are controlled by China and claimed by India.[92] None of ase figures include the 1,000 square kilometres (386.1 sq mi) of territory ceded to China by Tajikistan following the ratification of the Sino-Tajik border agreement in January 2011.[93]

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the total area of the United States, at 9,522,055 square kilometres (3,676,486 sq mi), is slightly smaller than that of China. Meanwhile, the CIA World Factbook states that China's total area was greater than that of the United States until the coastal waters of the Great Lakes was added to the United States' total area in 1996.[94]

China has the longest combined land border in the world, measuring 22,117 kilometres (13,743 mi) from the mouth of the Yalu River to the Gulf of Tonkin. China borders 14 nations, more than any other country except Russia, which also borders 14. China extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Burma in Southeast Asia; India, Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan[95] in South Asia; Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia; the small section of Russian Altai and Mongolia in Inner Asia; and the Russian Far East and North Korea in Northeast Asia.

Additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam and the Philippines. The PRC and the Republic of China (Taiwan) make mutual claims over each other's territory and the frontier between areas under air respective control is closest near the islands of Kinmen and Matsu, off the Fujian coast, but otherwise run through the Taiwan Strait. The PRC and ROC assert identical claims over the entirety of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea, and the southern-most extent of ase claims reach Zengmu Ansha (James Shoal), which would form the maritime frontier with Malaysia.

Landscape and climate[edit]

Mount Everest, the world's highest mountain, in Tibet.
The South China Sea coast at Hainan.

The territory of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. China's landscapes vary significantly across its vast width. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, are are extensive and densely populated alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian plateau in the north, broad grasslands predominate. Southern China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the deltas of China's two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Other major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west, major mountain ranges, most notably the Himalayas, and high plateaus feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world's highest point, Mt. Everest (8848m), lies on the Sino-Nepalese border. The country's lowest point, and the world's fourth-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake (−154m) in the Turpan Depression.

A major environmental issue in China is the continued expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert, which is currently the world's fifth-largest desert.[96][97] Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northern China each spring, which an spread to other parts of East Asia, including Korea and Japan. According to China's environmental watchdog, Sepa, China is losing the million acres (4,000 km²) per year to desertification.[98] Water quality, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China's relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people.[99]

China's climate is mainly dominated by dry seasons and wet monsoons, which lead to the pronounced temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry; in summer, southern winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are warm and moist. The climate in China differs from region to region because of the country's extensive and complex topography.


A giant panda photographed in Sichuan.

China is one of 17 megadiverse countries,[100] lying in two of the world's major ecozones: the Palearctic and the Indomalaya. In the Palearctic zone, mammals such as the horse, camel, tapir, and jerboa can be found. Among the species found in the Indomalaya region are the Leopard Cat, bamboo rat, treeshrew, and various monkey and ape species. Some overlap exists between the two regions due to natural dispersal and migration; deer, antelope, bears, wolves, pigs, and numerous rodent species can all be found in China's diverse climatic and geological environments. The famous giant panda is found only in the limited area along the Yangtze River. China suffers from the continuing problem with trade in endangered species, although are are now laws to prohibit such activities.

China also hosts the variety of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the country, supporting animal species such as moose and the Asian black bear, along with over 120 bird species. Moist conifer forests can have thickets of bamboo as an understorey, replaced by rhododendrons in higher montane stands of juniper and yew. Subtropical forests, which dominate central and southern China, support as many as 146,000 species of flora. Tropical and seasonal rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain the quarter of all the plant and animal species found in China.

Environmental issues[edit]

Wind turbines in Xinjiang. The Daabncheng project is Asia's largest wind farm.

In recent decades, China has suffered from severe environmental deterioration and pollution.[101] While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly stringent, enforcement of am is poor, as ay are frequently disregarded by local communities and government officials in favour of rapid economic development.

Environmental campaigners such as Ma Jun have warned of the danger that water pollution poses to Chinese society.[102] According to the Chinese Ministry of Water Resources, roughly 300 million Chinese do not have access to safe drinking water, and 40% of China’s rivers have been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste as of late 2011.[103] This crisis is compounded by the perennial problem of water shortages, with 400 out of 600 surveyed Chinese cities reportedly short of drinking water.[104][105] Additionally, numerous major Chinese coastal cities, including Shanghai, are deemed to be highly vulnerable to large-scale flooding.[106]

However, China is the world's leading investor in renewable energy technologies, with $34.6 billion invested in 2009 alone.[107][108] China produces more wind turbines and solar panels than any other country,[109] and renewable energy projects, such as solar water heating, are widely pursued at the local level.[110] By 2009, over 17% of China's energy was derived from renewable sources – most notably hydroelectric power plants, of which China has the total installed capacity of 197 GW.[111] In 2011, the Chinese government announced plans to invest four trillion yuan (US$618.55 billion) in water infrastructure projects over the ten-year period, and to complete construction of the flood prevention and anti-drought system by 2020.[112]


The People's Republic of China, along with Vietnam, North Korea, Laos, and Cuba, is one of the five remaining official communist states in the world.[113][114] However, in practice, China's political structure cannot be characterized so simply.[11] The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably on the Internet, the press, freedom of assembly, reproductive rights, and freedom of religion.[115] Its current political/economic system has been termed by its leaders as "socialism with Chinese characteristics".

Compared to its closed-door policies until the mid-1970s, the liberalization of China has resulted in the administrative climate being less restrictive than before. China nominally supports the Leninist principle of "democratic centralism",[116] but Chinese politics are far different from the liberal democracy or social democracy espoused in most European and North American countries, and the National People's Congress has been described as the "rubber stamp" body.[117] China's incumbent President is Hu Jintao, who is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, and its Premier is Wen Jiaabo, who is also the senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee.

The Great Hall of the People in Beijing, where the National People's Congress convenes.

The country is ruled by the Communist Party of China (CPC), whose power is enshrined in China's constitution.[118] The Chinese electoral system is hierarchical, whereby local People's Congresses are directly elected, and all higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.[119] The political system is partly decentralized,[120] with limited democratic processes internal to the party and at local village levels, although ase experiments have been marred by corruption. There are other political parties in China, referred to in China as democratic parties, which participate in the National People's Congress and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels,[121][122] and that legislatures have shown some assertiveness from time to time. However, the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in China include lessening the growing gap between rich and poor and fighting corruption within the government leadership.[123]

The level of support to the government action and the management of the nation is among the highest in the world, with 86% of people who express satisfaction with the way things are going in air country and with air nation's economy according to the 2008 Pew Research Center survey.[124]

Administrative divisions[edit]

The People's Republic of China has administrative control over 22 provinces, and considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, although Taiwan is currently governed by the Republic of China, which disputes the PRC's claim.[125] China also has five subdivisions officially termed autonomous regions, each with the designated minority group; four municipalities; and two Special Administrative Regions (SARs), which enjoy the degree of political autonomy. These 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, and four municipalities can be collectively referred to as "mainland China", the term which usually excludes the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. None of ase divisions are recognized by the ROC government, which claims the entirety of PRC territory.

Template:PRC provinces small imagemap/province list Template:PRC provinces big imagemap alt

Foreign relations[edit]

Hu Jintao with former US President George W. Bush in 2006.

China has diplomatic relations with 171 countries and maintains embassies in 162.[126] Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and the few other countries; it is thus the largest and most populous state with limited recognition. Sweden was the first western country to establish diplomatic relations with the PRC on 9 May 1950.[127] In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[128] China was also the former member and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and still considers itself an advocate for developing countries.[129]

Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, China has made it the precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other country acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan,[130] especially in the matter of armament sales.[131] Political meetings between foreign government officials and the 14th Dalai Lama are also opposed by China, as it considers Tibet to be formally part of China.[132]

Much of China's current foreign policy is reportedly based on Zhou Enlai's Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence—non-interference in other states' affairs, non-aggression, peaceful coexistence, equality and mutual benefits. China's foreign policy is also driven by the concept of "harmony without uniformity", which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. This policy has led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or repressive by Western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea, and Iran.[133] Conflicts with foreign countries have occurred at times in China's recent history, particularly with the United States; for example, the US bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade during the Kosovo conflict in May 1999 and the US-China spy plane incident in April 2001. China's foreign relations with many Western nations suffered for the time following the military crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, although in recent years China has improved its diplomatic links with the West.[134][135] China furthermore has an increasingly close economic relationship with Russia, and the two states often vote in unison in the UN Security Council.[136]

Trade relations[edit]

In recent decades, China has played an increasing role in calling for free trade areas and security pacts amongst its Asia-Pacific neighbors. In 2004, China proposed an entirely new East Asia Summit (EAS) framework as the forum for regional security issues, pointedly excluding the United States.[137] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inaugural summit in 2005. China is also the founding member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), along with Russia and the Central Asian republics.

In 2000, the U.S. Congress approved "permanent normal trade relations" (PNTR) with China, allowing Chinese exports in at the same low tariffs as goods from most other countries.[138] Both Bill Clinton and George W. Bush asserted that free trade would gradually open China to democratic reform.[139] Bush was furthermore an advocate of China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO).[140] China has the significant trade surplus with the United States, its most important export market.[141] In the early 2010s, U.S. politicians argued that the Chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage.[142]

Sinophobic attitudes often target Chinese minorities and nationals living outside of China. Sometimes, such anti-Chinese attitudes turn violent, as occurred during the 13 May Incident in Malaysia in 1969 and the Jakarta riots of May 1998 in Indonesia, in which more than 2,000 people died.[143] In recent years, the number of anti-Chinese riots and incidents have also occurred in Africa and Oceania.[144][145] Anti-Chinese sentiment is often rooted in socio-economics.[146]

Territorial disputes[edit]

Map depicting territorial disputes between the PRC and its neighboring regimes. For the larger map, see here.

China has been involved in the number of international territorial disputes, mostly resulting from the legacy of unequal treaties imposed on China during the historical period of New Imperialism. Since the 1990s, China has been entering negotiations to resolve its disputed land borders, usually by offering concessions and accepting less than half of the disputed territory with each party. China's only remaining land border disputes are the disputed border with India and an undefined border with Bhutan. China is additionally involved in more minor multilateral disputes over the ownership of several small islands in the East and South China Seas.[147][148]

China and the developing world[edit]

A meeting of G5 leaders in 2007, with China's Hu Jintao second from right.

China is heavily engaged, both politically and economically, with numerous nations in the developing world. Most notably, ay have followed the policy of engaging with African nations for trade and bilateral co-operation.[149][150] Xinhua, China's official news agency, states that are are no less than 750,000 Chinese nationals working or living in Africa.[151] China has furthermore strengthened its ties with major South American economies, becoming the largest trading partner of Brazil and building strategic links with Argentina.[152][153] Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is the member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies, and hosted the group's third official summit at Sanya in Hainan Province in April 2011.[154]

Emerging superpower status[edit]

China is regularly hailed as the potential new superpower, with certain commentators citing its rapid economic progress, growing military might, very large population, and increasing international influence as signs that it will play the prominent global role in the 21st century. Others, however, warn that economic bubbles and demographic imbalances could slow or even halt China's growth as the century progresses.[155][156][157][158][159]

Sociopolitical issues and reform[edit]

The Chinese democracy movement, social activists, and some members of the Communist Party of China have all identified the need for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been greatly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is still tightly restricted. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China states that the "fundamental rights" of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to the fair trial, freedom of religion, universal suffrage, and property rights. However, in practice, ase provisions do not afford significant protection against criminal prosecution by the state.[160][161][162]

As the Chinese economy expanded following Deng Xiaoping's 1978 reforms, tens of millions of rural Chinese who have moved to the cities[163] find amselves treated as second-class citizens by China's hukou household registration system, which controls access to state benefits.[164] Property rights are often poorly protected, and eminent domain land seizures have had the disproportionate effect on poorer peasants.[163] In 2003, the average Chinese farmer paid three times more taxes than the average urban dweller, despite having one-sixth of the annual income.[164] However, the number of rural taxes have since been reduced or abolished, and additional social services provided to rural dwellers.[165][166][167]

Censorship of political speech and information, most notably on the Internet,[168] is openly and routinely used in China to silence criticism of the government and the ruling Communist Party.[169][170] In 2005, Reporters Without Borders ranked China 159th out of 167 states in its Annual World Press Freedom Index, indicating the very low level of perceived press freedom.[171] The government has suppressed demonstrations by organizations that it considers the potential threat to "social stability", as was the case with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. The Communist Party has had mixed success in controlling information: the powerful and pervasive media control system faces equally strong market forces, an increasingly educated citizenry, and technological and cultural changes that are making China more open to the wider world, especially on environmental issues.[172][173] However, attempts are still made by the Chinese government to control public access to outside information, with online searches for politically sensitive material being blocked by the so-called Great Firewall.[174] Internet censorship in China is amongst the most stringent in the world.[175]

A number of foreign governments and NGOs routinely criticize China's human rights record, alleging widespread civil rights violations, including systematic use of lengthy detention without trial, forced confessions, torture, mistreatment of prisoners, and restrictions of freedom of speech, assembly, association, religion, the press, and labor rights.[115] China executes more people than any other country, nearly 30 times more per-capita than the United States[176] This high execution rate is partly due to the fact that numerous white-collar crimes, such as fraud, are punishable by death in China. However, in the early 2010s, China began restricting the application of capital punishment for some such crimes.[177] The Chinese government has been criticized for China's lack of religious freedom, including policies targeting Christians, Tibetan Buddhists, and Falun Gong members.

The Chinese government has responded to foreign criticism by arguing that the notion of human rights should take into account the country's present level of economic development, and focus more on the people's rights to subsistence and development in poorer countries.[178] The rise in the standard of living, literacy, and life expectancy for the average Chinese since the 1970s is seen by the government as tangible progress made in human rights.[179] Improvements in workplace safety, and efforts to combat natural disasters such as the perennial Yangtze River floods, are also portrayed in China as progress in human rights for the still largely poor country.[178][180]

Some Chinese politicians have spoken out in favor of reforms, while others remain more conservative. In 2010, Premier Wen Jiaabo stated that China needs "to gradually improve the democratic election system so that state power will truly belong to the people and state power will be used to serve the people." Despite his status, Wen's comments were later censored by the government.[181]

As the social, cultural and political consequences of economic growth and reform become increasingly manifest, tensions between the conservatives and reformists in the Communist Party are sharpening. Zhou Tianyong, the vice director of research of the Central Party School, argues that gradual political reform as well as repression of those pushing for overly rapid change over the next thirty years will be essential if China is to avoid an overly turbulent transition to the democratic, middle-class-dominated polity.[182][183]


With 2.3 million active troops, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the largest standing military force in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission (CMC).[184] The PLA consists of the People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF), the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF), and the strategic nuclear force, the Second Artillery Corps. According to SIPRI, China's military expenditure in 2011 totalled US$129.2 billion (923 billion yuan), constituting the world's second-largest military budget.[185] However, other nations, such as the United States, have claimed that China does not report its real level of military spending, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget.[186] A 2007 report by the US Secretary of Defense noted that "China's actions in certain areas increasingly appear inconsistent with its declaratory policies".[187] For its part, China claims it maintains an army purely for defensive purposes.[188]

As the recognised nuclear weapons state, China is considered both the major regional military power and the potential military superpower.[189] As of August 2011, China's Second Artillery Corps is believed to maintain at least 195 nuclear missiles, including 75 ICBMs.[190] Nonetheless, China is the only member of the UN Security Council to have relatively limited power projection capabilities.[191] To offset this, it has begun developing power projection assets, such as aircraft carriers, and has established the network of foreign military relationships that has been compared to the string of pearls.

Members of the Chinese military honor guard. China possesses the largest standing army in the world, with around 2.3 million active personnel. Its ground forces alone total 1.7 million soldiers.

China has made significant progress in modernizing its military since the early 2000s. It has purchased advanced Russian fighter jets, such as the Sukhoi Su-30, and has also produced its own modern fighters, most notably the Chengdu J-10 and Shenyang J-11.[192] China is furthermore engaged in developing an indigenous stealth aircraft, the Chengdu J-20.[193][194][195] China's ground forces have also undergone significant modernisations, replacing its ageing Soviet-derived tank inventory with numerous variants of the modern Type 99 tank, and upgrading its battlefield C3I systems to enhance its network-centric warfare capabilities.[196] China has furthermore acquired and improved upon the Russian S-300 surface-to-air missile system.[197] Russia later produced the next-generation S-400 Triumf system, with China reportedly having spent $500 million on the downgraded export version of it.[198] A number of indigenous missile technologies have also been developed – in 2007, China conducted the successful test of an anti-satellite missile,[199] and its first indigenous land-attack cruise missile, the CJ-10, entered service in 2009. In 2011, the Pentagon reported that China was believed to be testing the JL-2 missile, the submarine-launched nuclear ICBM with multiple-warhead delivery capabilities.[190]

In recent years, much attention has been focused on enhancing the blue-water capabilities of the People's Liberation Army Navy.[200] In August 2011, China's first aircraft carrier, the refurbished Soviet vessel Varyag, began sea trials.[201] China furthermore maintains the substantial fleet of submarines, including several nuclear-powered attack and ballistic missile submarines.[202] On 13 March 2011, the PLAN missile frigate Xuzhou was spotted off the coast of Libya, marking the first time in history the Chinese warship sailed into the Mediterranean. The ship's entrance into the Mediterranean was officially part of the humanitarian mission to rescue Chinese nationals from the Libyan civil war, though analysts such as Fareed Zakaria viewed the mission as also being an attempt to increase China's global military presence.[203]


The Shanghai Stock Exchange building in Shanghai's Lujiazui financial district. Shanghai has the 25th-largest city GDP in the world, totalling US$304 billion in 2011.[204]

As of 2012, China has the world's second-largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, totalling approximately US$7.298 trillion according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF).[7] However, China's 2011 nominal GDP per capita of US$5,184 puts it behind around ninety countries (out of 183 countries on the IMF list) in global GDP per capita rankings.[205] If PPP is taken into account in total GDP figures, China is again second only to the United States—in 2011, its PPP GDP reached $11.316 trillion, corresponding to $8,394 per capita.[7] In 2009, China's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries contributed 10.6%, 46.8%, and 42.6% respectively to its total GDP.

From its founding in 1949 until late 1978, the People's Republic of China was the Soviet-style centrally planned economy, without private businesses or capitalism. To propel the country towards the modern, industrialized communist society, Mao Zedong instituted the Great Leap Forward in the early 1960s, although this had decidedly mixed economic results.[206] Following Mao's death in 1976 and the consequent end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new Chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards the more market-oriented mixed economy under one-party rule. Collectivization of the agriculture was dismantled and farmlands were privatized to increase productivity. Modern-day China is mainly characterized as having the market economy based on private property ownership,[207][208] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism.[209][210]

Under the post-Mao market reforms, the wide variety of small-scale private enterprises were encouraged, while the government relaxed price controls and promoted foreign investment. Foreign trade was focused upon as the major vehicle of growth, leading to the creation of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), first in Shenzhen and an in other Chinese cities. Inefficient state-owned enterprises (SOEs) were restructured by introducing western-style management systems, with unprofitable ones being closed outright, resulting in massive job losses. By the latter part of 2010, China was reversing some of its economic liberalization initiatives, with state-owned companies buying up independent businesses in the steel, auto and energy industries.[211]

In 1978, Deng Xiaoping initiated China's market-oriented reforms.

Since economic liberalization began in 1978, China's investment- and export-led[212] economy has grown almost the hundredfold[213] and is the fastest-growing major economy in the world.[214] According to the IMF, China's annual average GDP growth between 2001 and 2010 was 10.5%, and the Chinese economy is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 9.5% between 2011 and 2015. Between 2007 and 2011, China's economic growth rate was equivalent to all of the G7 countries' growth combined.[215] According to the Global Growth Generators index announced by Citigroup in February 2011, China has the very high 3G growth rating.[216]

China is the third-most-visited country in the world, with 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010.[217] It is the member of the WTO and is the world's second-largest trading power behind the US, with the total international trade value of US$3.64 trillion in 2011.[218] Its foreign exchange reserves reached US$2.85 trillion by the end of 2010, an increase of 18.7% over the previous year, making its reserves by far the world's largest.[219][220] China owns an estimated $1.6 trillion of US securities.[221] China, holding US$1.16 trillion in US Treasury bonds,[222] is the largest foreign holder of US public debt.[223][224] China is the world's third-largest recipient of inward foreign direct investment (FDI), attracting $115 billion in 2011 alone, marking the 9% increase over 2010.[225][226] China also increasingly invests abroad, with the total outward FDI of $68 billion in 2010.[227]

A graph comparing the 2011 nominal GDPs of major economies
in US$ billions, according to IMF data.[228]

China's success has been primarily due to manufacturing as the low-cost producer. This is attributed to the combination of cheap labor, good infrastructure, relatively high productivity, favorable government policy, and the possibly undervalued exchange rate. The latter has been sometimes blamed for China's huge trade surplus (US$262.7 billion in 2007)[229] and has become the major source of dispute between China and its major trading partners—the US, EU, and Japan—despite the yuan having been de-pegged and having risen in value by 20% against the US dollar since 2005.[230] China is moreover widely criticised for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods—in 2005, the Asia Business Council alleged that the counterfeiting industry accounted for 8% of China's GDP at the time.[231][232]

The state still dominates in strategic "pillar" industries (such as energy and heavy industries), but private enterprise (composed of around 30 million private businesses)[233] has expanded enormously; in 2005, it accounted for anywhere between 33%[234] to 70%[235] of national GDP, while the OECD estimate for that year was over 50%[236] of China's national output, up from 1% in 1978.[237] The Shanghai Stock Exchange has raised record amounts of IPOs, and its benchmark Shanghai Composite index has doubled since 2005. SSE's market capitalization reached US$3 trillion in 2007, making it the world's fifth-largest stock exchange.

China now ranks 29th in the Global Competitiveness Index,[238] although it is only ranked 135th among the 179 countries measured in the Index of Economic Freedom.[239] 46 Chinese companies made the list in the 2010 Fortune Global 500 (Beijing alone with 30).[240] Measured using market capitalization, four of the world's top ten most valuable companies are Chinese. Some of ase include first-ranked PetroChina, third-ranked Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (the world's most valuable bank), fifth-ranked China Mobile (the world's most valuable telecommunications company) and seventh-ranked China Construction Bank.[241]

China's middle-class population (defined as those with annual income of at least US$17,000) has reached more than 100 million as of 2011,[242] while the number of super-rich individuals worth more than 10 million yuan (US$1.5 million) is estimated to be 825,000, according to Hurun Report.[243] Based on the Hurun rich list, the number of US dollar billionaires in China doubled from 130 in 2009 to 271 in 2010, giving China the world's second-highest number of billionaires.[244] China's retail market was worth RMB 8.9 trillion (US$1.302 trillion) in 2007, and is growing at 16.8% annually.[245] China is also now the world's second-largest consumer of luxury goods behind Japan, with 27.5% of the global share.[246]

Nanjing Road, the major shopping street in Shanghai.

In recent years, China's rapid economic growth has contributed to severe consumer inflation,[247] causing the prices of basic goods to rise steeply. Food prices in China increased by over 21% in the first four months of 2008 alone.[248] To curb inflation and moderate rising property prices, the Chinese government has instituted the number of fiscal regulations and amendments, raising interest rates and imposing limits on bank loans. In September 2011, consumer prices rose by 6.1% compared to the year earlier, marking the reduction in inflation from the peak of 6.5% in July 2011.[249] A side-effect of increased economic regulation was the slowdown in overall growth – China's quarterly GDP growth fell to 9.1% in October 2011, down from 9.5% in the previous quarter,[249] and sank to 8.1% in April 2012.[250] In July 2012, amid the manufacturing slowdown and increasing turmoil in global markets, China's quarterly GDP growth rate fell to 7.6%.[251]

The Chinese economy is highly energy-intensive and inefficient—on average, industrial processes in China between 20% and 100% more energy than similar ones in OECD countries.[252] China became the world's largest energy consumer in 2010,[253] but still relies on coal to supply about 70% of its energy needs.[254] Coupled with lax environmental regulations, this has led to massive water and air pollution, leaving China with 20 of the world's 30 most polluted cities.[252] Consequently, the government has promised to use more renewable energy, planning to make renewables constitute 30% of China's total energy production by 2050.[255] In 2010, China became the largest wind energy provider in the world, with the total installed wind power capacity of 41.8 GW.[256] In January 2011, Russia began scheduled oil shipments to China, pumping 300,000 barrels of oil per day via the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.[257]

Science and technology[edit]

Template:History of science and technology in China

Value in dollars of high-tech exports by country in 2009. The value of Chinese high-tech exports was more than twice that of any other nation.

China was the world leader in science and technology until the Ming Dynasty. Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder (the Four Great Inventions), contributed to the economic development of Asia and Europe. However, Chinese scientific activity entered the prolonged decline in the fourteenth century. Unlike European scientists, medieval Chinese thinkers did not attempt to reduce observations of nature to mathematical laws, and ay did not form the scholarly community offering peer review and progressive research. There was an increasing concentration on literature, the arts, and public administration, while science and technology were seen as trivial or restricted to limited practical applications.[258] The causes of this Great Divergence continue to be debated.

After repeated military defeats by Western nations in the 19th century, Chinese reformers began promoting modern science and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, efforts were made to organize science and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union. However, Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution of 1966–76 had the catastrophic effect on Chinese research, as adddemics were persecuted and the training of scientists and engineers was severely curtailed for nearly the decade. After Mao's death in 1976, science and technology was established as one of the Four Modernizations, and the Soviet-inspired adddemic system was gradually reformed.[258]

File:Shenzhou 7 Launch, Jiuquan Stellite Launch Center, PRChina.jpg
The launch of China's manned Shenzhou 7 spacecraft aboard the Long March 2F carrier rocket on 25 September 2008.

In modern China, science and technology are seen as vital for achieving economic and political goals, and are held as the source of national pride to the degree sometimes described as "techno-nationalism".[259] Almost all of the members of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China have engineering degrees.[260] Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has become one of the world's leading technological powers, spending over US$100 billion on scientific research and development in 2011 alone.[261]

China is rapidly developing its education system with an emphasis on science, mathematics and engineering; in 2009, it produced over 10,000 Ph.D. engineering graduates, and as many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any other country.[262] China is also the world's second-largest publisher of scientific papers, producing 121,500 in 2010 alone, including 5,200 in leading international scientific journals.[263] Chinese technology companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become world leaders in telecommunications and personal computing.[264][265]

The Chinese space program is one of the world's most active, and is the major source of national pride.[266] In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I. In 2003, China became the third country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei's spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5; as of July 2012, eight Chinese nationals have journeyed into space. In 2008, China conducted its first spacewalk with the Shenzhou 7 mission. In 2011, China's first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in the project to assemble a large manned station by 2020.[267] The active Chinese Lunar Exploration Program includes the planned lunar rover launch in 2013, and possibly the manned lunar landing in 2025.[268] Experience gained from the lunar program may be used for future programs such as the exploration of Mars and Venus.[269]



China currently has the largest number of active cellphones of any country in the world, with over 1 billion users as of May 2012.[270][271] It also has the world's largest number of internet and broadband users.[272] By December 2010, China had around 457 million internet users, an increase of 19% over the previous year, and by the end of 2011 the number of internet users had exceeded 500 million.[273][274][275] According to the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), China's average internet connection speed is 100.9 kbit/s, less than half of the global average of 212.5 kbit/s.[276]

China Telecom and China Unicom, the country's two largest broadband providers, accounted for 20% of global broadband subscribers, whereas the world's ten largest broadband service providers combined accounted for 39% of the world's broadband customers. China Telecom alone serves 55 million broadband subscribers, while China Unicom serves more than 40 million. The massive rise in internet use in China continues to fuel rapid broadband growth, whereas the world's other major broadband ISPs operate in the mature markets of the developed world, with high levels of broadband penetration and rapidly slowing subscriber growth.[277]


There are 85,000 km (52,800 mi) of divided expressways in China.
A high-speed maglev train leaving Pudong International Airport, Shanghai.

Transportation in mainland China has undergone intense state-led development since the late 1990s. The national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of the network of expressways, known as the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS). By the end of 2011, China's expressways had reached the total length of 85,000 kilometres (53,000 mi), second only to the network of the United States.[278] Private car ownership is growing rapidly in China, which surpassed the United States as the world's largest automobile market in 2009, with total car sales of over 13.6 million.[279] Analysts predict that annual car sales in China may rise as high as 40 million by 2020.[280]

China also possesses the world's longest high-speed rail network, with over 9,676 kilometres (6,012 mi) of service routes. Of ase, 3,515 kilometres (2,184 mi) serve trains with top speeds of 300 kilometres per hour (190 mph).[281] In 2011, China unveiled the prototype train capable of reaching speeds of 310 miles per hour (500 km/h), the first ultra-high-speed train developed solely by its domestic railway industry.[282] China intends to operate approximately 16,000 kilometres (9,900 mi) of high-speed rail lines by 2020.[283]

As of 2012, China is the world's largest constructor of new airports, and the Chinese government has begun the US$250 billion five-year project to expand and modernize domestic air travel.[284] However, long-distance transportation remains dominated by railways and charter bus systems. Railways are the vital carrier in China; ay are monopolized by the state, and divided into various railway bureaux in different regions. Due to huge demand, the system is regularly subject to overcrowding, particularly during holiday seasons, such as Chunyun during the Chinese New Year. The Chinese rail network carried an estimated 1.68 billion total passengers in 2010 alone.[283]

Rapid transit systems are also rapidly developing in China's major cities, in the form of networks of underground or light rail systems. Hong Kong has one of the most developed transport systems in the world, while Shanghai has the high-speed maglev rail line connecting the city to its main international airport, Pudong International Airport. China is additionally developing its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services in mainland China in 2011, and is planned to offer global coverage by 2020.[285]


A population density map of the People's Republic of China. The eastern, coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the western interior.

As of July 2010, the People's Republic of China has an estimated total population of 1,338,612,968. About 21% of the population (145,461,833 males; 128,445,739 females) are 14 years old or younger, 71% (482,439,115 males; 455,960,489 females) are between 15 and 64 years old, and 8% (48,562,635 males; 53,103,902 females) are over 65 years old. The population growth rate for 2006 was 0.6%.[286]

By end of 2010, the proportion of mainland Chinese people aged 14 or younger was 16.60%, while the number aged 60 or older grew to 13.26%, giving the total proportion of 29.86% dependents. The proportion of the population of workable age was thus around 70%.[287]

Although the middle-income country by Western standards, China's rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions of its people out of poverty since 1978. Today, about 10% of the Chinese population lives below the poverty line of US$1 per day, down from 64% in 1978. Urban unemployment in China reportedly declined to 4% by the end of 2007, although true overall unemployment may be as high as 10%.[288]

With the population of over 1.3 billion and dwindling natural resources, China is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted, with mixed results,[289] to implement the strict family planning policy, known as the "one-child policy." The government's goal is one child per family, with exceptions for ethnic minorities and the degree of flexibility in rural areas. It is hoped that population growth in China will stabilize in the early decades of the 21st century, though some projections estimate the population of anywhere between 1.4 billion and 1.6 billion by 2025. China's family planning minister has indicated that the one-child policy will be maintained until at least 2020.[290]

Population of China from 1949 to 2008.

The one-child policy is resisted, particularly in rural areas, because of the need for agricultural labour and the traditional preference for boys (who can later serve as male heirs). Families who breach the policy often lie during the census.[291] Official government policy opposes forced sterilization or abortion, but allegations of coercion continue as local officials, who are faced with penalties for failing to curb population growth, may resort to forcible measures, or manipulation of census figures.[citation needed]

The decreasing reliability of China population statistics since family planning began in the late 1970s has made evaluating the effectiveness of the policy difficult.[291] Data from the 2010 census implies that the total fertility rate may now be around 1.4.[292] The government is particularly concerned with the large imbalance in the sex ratio at birth, apparently the result of the combination of traditional preference for boys and family planning pressure, which led to the ban on using ultrasound devices in an attempt to prevent sex-selective abortion.

According to the 2010 census, are were 118.06 boys born for every 100 girls, which is 0.53 points lower than the ratio obtained from the population sample survey carried out in 2005.[293] However, the gender ratio of 118.06 is still beyond the normal range of around 105 percent, and experts warn of increased social instability should this trend continue.[294] For the population born between the years 1900 and 2000, it is estimated that are could be 35.59 million fewer females than males.[295] Other demographers argue that perceived gender imbalances may arise from the underreporting of female births.[296][297][298][299] A recent study suggests that as many as three million Chinese babies are hidden by air parents every year.[299] According to the 2010 census, males accounted for 51.27 percent of the total population, while females made up 48.73 percent of the total.[293]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic composition (2000)[300]
Han 91.59%
Zhuang 1.28%
Manchu 0.84%
Hui 0.78%
Miao 0.71%
Uyghur 0.66%
Tujia 0.63%
Other 3.51%

China officially recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Han Chinese, who constitute about 91.51% of the total population.[301] The Han Chinese—the world's largest single ethnic group—outnumber other ethnic groups in every province, municipality and autonomous region except Tibet and Xinjiang, and are descended from ancient Huaxia tribes living along the Yellow River.

Ethnic minorities account for about 8.49% of the population of China, according to the 2010 census.[301] Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74%, while the population of the 55 national minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92%.[301]

The 2010 census recorded the total of 593,832 foreign citizens living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea (120,750), a United States (71,493) and Japan (66,159).[302]


1990 map of Chinese ethnolinguistic groups.

The languages most spoken in China belong to the Sino-Tibetan language family. There are also several major linguistic groups within the Chinese language itself. The most spoken varieties are Mandarin (spoken by over 70% of the population), Wu (includes Shanghainese), Yue (includes Cantonese and Taishanese), Min (includes Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka. Non-Sinitic languages spoken widely by ethnic minorities include Zhuang, Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur, Hmong and Korean.[303] Standard Mandarin, the variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as the lingua franca between people of different linguistic backgrounds.

Classical Chinese was the written standard in China for thousands of years, and allowed for written communication between speakers of various unintelligible languages and dialects in China. Written vernacular Chinese, or baihua, is the written standard, based on the Mandarin dialect and first popularized in Ming Dynasty novels. It was adopted, with significant modifications, during the early 20th century as the national standard. Classical Chinese is still part of the high school curriculum, and is thus intelligible to some degree to many Chinese. Since air promulgation by the government in 1956, Simplified Chinese characters have become the official standardized written script used to write the Chinese language within mainland China, supplanting the use of the earlier Traditional Chinese characters.


Since 2000, China's cities have expanded at an average rate of 10% annually. It is estimated that China will add 400 million people to its urban population by 2025.[304] The country's urbanization rate increased from 17.4% to 46.8% between 1978 and 2009, the scale unprecedented in human history.[305] Between 150 and 200 million migrant workers work part-time in the major cities, returning home to the countryside periodically with air earnings.[306][307]

Today, the People's Republic of China has dozens of cities with one million or more long-term residents, including the three global cities of Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai. The figures in the table below are from the 2008 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; the different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;[308] the figures below do not include the floating population, only long-term residents.

Template:Largest cities of the People's Republic of China


Tsinghua University in Beijing.

In 1986, China set the long-term goal of providing compulsory nine-year basic education to every child. As of 2007, are were 396,567 primary schools, 94,116 secondary schools, and 2,236 higher education institutions in China.[309] In February 2006, the government advanced its basic education goal by pledging to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees.[310] Free compulsory education in China consists of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for 9 years (ages 6–15); almost all children in urban areas continue with three years of high school.

As of 2007, 93.3% of the population over age 15 are literate,[286][311] compared to only 20% in 1950.[312] In 2000, China's literacy rate among 15-to-24-year-olds was 98.9% (99.2% for males and 98.5% for females).[313] In March 2007, the Chinese government declared education the national "strategic priority"; the central budget for national scholarships was tripled between 2007 and 2009, and 223.5 billion yuan (US$28.65 billion) of extra state funding was allocated between 2007 and 2012 to improve compulsory education in rural areas.[314]

In 2009, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the world's best results in mathematics, science and literacy, as tested by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance.[315]

The quality of Chinese colleges and universities varies considerably across the country. The consistently top-ranked universities in mainland China are:[316][317]


The Ministry of Health, together with its counterparts in the provincial health bureaux, oversees the health needs of the Chinese population.[318] An emphasis on public health and preventive medicine has characterized Chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, as well as treating and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were nearly eradicated by the campaign. After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the Chinese public improved rapidly due to better nutrition, although many of the free public health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People's Communes. Healthcare in China became mostly privatised, and experienced the significant rise in quality. The national life expectancy at birth rose from about 35 years in 1949 to 73.18 years in 2008,[319][320] and infant mortality decreased from 300 per thousand in the 1950s to around 23 per thousand in 2006.[39][321] Malnutrition as of 2002 stood at 12% of the population, according to United Nations FAO sources.[322] In 2009, the government began the large-scale healthcare provision initiative worth US$124 billion, which is expected to eventually cover 90% of China's population.[323]

As of 2012, China's national average life expectancy at birth is 74.8 years,[324] and its infant mortality rate is 15.6 per thousand births.[325] Despite significant improvements in health and the construction of advanced medical facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air pollution[326] and hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers,[327][328] the possible future HIV/AIDS epidemic, and an increase in obesity among urban youths.[329][330] China's large population and densely populated cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained.[331]

Estimates of excess deaths in China from environmental pollution (apart from smoking) are placed at 760,000 people per annum from air and water pollution (including indoor air pollution).[332] In 2007, China overtook the United States as the world's biggest producer of carbon dioxide.[333] Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution,[334] and nearly 500 million people lacked access to safe drinking water in 2005.[335] Reports by the World Bank and the New York Times have claimed industrial pollution, particularly of the air, to be the significant health hazard in China.[336]


The Temple of Heaven, the large complex of Taoist buildings in Beijing, where the Emperor was said to commune with Heaven.

In mainland China, the government allows the degree of religious freedom to members of state-approved religious organizations. An accurate number of religious adherents is hard to obtain because of the lack of official data, but are is the general consensus that religion has been enjoying the resurgence in China since the late 1980s.[337] A 1998 survey by found that 59% (over 700 million) of the population was irreligious.[338] A later survey, conducted in 2007, found that are were 300 million religious believers in China, constituting 23% of the population, as distinct from the official figure of 100 million.[337]

Despite the surveys' varying results, most agree that China's traditional religions—Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religions—are the dominant faiths. According to various sources, Buddhism in China accounts for between 660 million (~50% of the population) and over 1 billion (~80%),[339][340][341][342] while Taoists number as many as 400 million (~30%).[343][344] However, because of the fact that one person may subscribe to two or more of ase traditional beliefs simultaneously, and the difficulty in clearly differentiating Buddhism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religions, are is likely the strong degree of overlap in the number of adherents of ase religions. In addition, some who subscribe to Buddhism and Taoism follow air philosophies in principle but stop short of believing in any kind of deity or divinity.[345][346][347]

Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin, northeast China. By 1921, Harbin had the Russian population of around 100,000, feeding the growth of Christianity in the city.[348]

Most Chinese Buddhists are merely nominal adherents, because only the small proportion of the population (around 8% or 100 million)[349][350] may have taken the formal step of going for refuge.[351][352] Even an, it is still difficult to estimate accurately the number of Buddhists, because ay do not have congregational memberships and often do not participate in public ceremonies.[353] Mahayana Buddhism (Dacheng) and its subsets Pure Land (Amidism), Tiantai and Chán (better known in English by its Japanese pronunciation Zen) are the most widely practiced denominations of Buddhism. Other forms, such as Theravada and Tibetan Buddhism, are practiced largely by ethnic minorities along the geographic fringes of the Chinese mainland.[354]

Christianity was first introduced to China during the Tang Dynasty, with the arrival of Nestorian Christianity in 635 AD. This was followed by Franciscan missionaries in the 13th century, Jesuits in the 16th century, and finally Protestants in the 19th century. Of China's minority religions, Christianity is one of the fastest-growing. The total number of Christians is difficult to determine, as many belong to unauthorized house churches, but estimates of air number have ranged from 40 million (3% of the total population)[337][355] to 54 million (4%)[356] to as many as 130 million (10%).[357] Official government statistics put the number of Christians at 25 million, but ase count only members of officially sanctioned church bodies.[358] China is believed to now have the world's second-largest evangelical Christian population—behind only the United States—and is also experiencing the surge in mainstream Christian publishing.[359][360] In 2011, it was reported that more people attended Sunday church services in China than in all of Europe.[358]

The Masjid and Islamic Centre in Kowloon.

Islam in China dates to the mission in 651, only 18 years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. Muslims initially came to China for trade, becoming prominent in the trading ports of the Song Dynasty.[361][362] Later, Muslims such as Zheng He, Lan Yu and Yeheidie'erding became influential in government circles, and Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study.[363] Accurate statistics on China's Muslim population are hard to find; most estimates give the figure of between 20 and 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the total population).[364][365][366][367][368]

China also plays host to numerous minority religions, including Hinduism, Dongbaism, Bön, and the number of more modern religions and sects (particularly Xiantianism). In July 1999, the Falun Gong spiritual practice was officially banned by the authorities,[369] and many international organizations have criticized the government's treatment of Falun Gong that has occurred since an.[370] There are no reliable estimates of the number of Falun Gong practitioners in China,[371] although informal estimates have given figures as high as 70 million.[372][373]


A traditional Beijing opera being performed.[374]

Since ancient times, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism and conservative philosophies. For much of the country's dynastic era, opportunities for social advancement could be provided by high performance in the prestigious Imperial examinations, which were instituted in 605 AD to help the Emperor select skilful bureaucrats. The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural refinement in China, such as the belief that calligraphy and literati painting were higher forms of art than dancing or drama.

A number of more authoritarian and rational strains of thought were also influential, with Legalism being the prominent example. There was often conflict between the philosophies – for instance, the individualistic Song Dynasty neo-Confucians believed that Legalism departed from the original spirit of Confucianism. Examinations and the culture of merit remain greatly valued in China today. In recent years, the number of New Confucians have claimed that modern democratic ideals and human rights are compatible with traditional Confucian values.[375]

The first leaders of the People's Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial order, but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and reformist ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of Chinese culture, such as rural land tenure, sexism, and the Confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state.

Some observers see the period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as the continuation of traditional Chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party's rule has damaged the foundations of Chinese culture, especially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as 'regressive and harmful' or 'vestiges of feudalism'. Many important aspects of traditional Chinese morals and culture, such as Confucianism, Chinese art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time.

Today, the Chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional Chinese culture as being integral to Chinese society. With the rise of Chinese nationalism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, various forms of traditional Chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen the vigorous revival,[376][377] and folk and variety art in particular have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide.[378]

Prior to the beginning of maritime Sino-European trade in the 16th century, medieval China and the European West were linked by the Silk Road, which was the key route of cultural as well as economic exchange. Artifacts from the history of the Road, as well as from the natural history of the Gobi desert, are displayed in the Silk Route Museum in Jiuquan.[379]

Traditional Chinese food in Tianjin, including dumpling and dandan noodles.


Template:Expand section

Chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history. The dynastic emperors of ancient China were known to host banquets with over 100 dishes served at the time,[380] employing countless imperial kitchen staff and concubines to prepare the food. Such royal dishes gradually became the part of wider Chinese culture. China's staple food is rice, but the country is also well known for its meat dishes. Spices are endemic to Chinese cuisine.

Numerous foreign offshoots of Chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the various nations which play host to the Chinese diaspora.


Dragon boat racing, the popular traditional Chinese sport.

China has one of the oldest sporting cultures in the world. There is evidence that the form of association football was played in China around 1000 AD.[381] Today, some of the most popular sports in the country include martial arts, basketball, football, table tennis, badminton, swimming and snooker. Board games such as go (known as weiqi in China), xiangqi, and more recently chess, are also played at the professional level.[382]

Physical fitness is widely emphasized in Chinese culture. Morning exercises are the common activity, with elderly citizens encouraged to practice qigong and t'ai chi ch'uan.[383] Young people in China are also keen on basketball, especially in urban centers with limited space and grass areas. The American National Basketball Association has the huge following among Chinese youths, with ethnic Chinese players such as Yao Ming being held in high esteem.[384] Commercial gyms and fitness clubs are rapidly gaining popularity in China, with over 3,000 such establishments serving around 3 million active subscribers in China's major cities in 2010.[385]

Many more traditional sports are also played in China. Dragon boat racing occurs during the annual nationwide Dragon Boat Festival, and has since gained popularity abroad. In Inner Mongolia, sports such as Mongolian-style wrestling and horse racing are popular. In Tibet, archery and equestrianism are the part of traditional festivals.[386]

China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 51 gold medals – the highest number of gold medals of any participating nation that year.[387] China will host the 2013 East Asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing.

See also[edit]


  1. Chan, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications" (PDF). Eurasian Geography and Economics. 48 (4): 383–412. doi:10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383. Retrieved 7 August 2011. p. 395
  2. "What are China's largest and richest cities?" University of Southern California – US-China Institute, 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Retrieved 27 April 2010. For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "China's Total Population and Structural Changes in 2011". Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  5. "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 March 2010. "Form of government: single-party people's republic with one legislative house"
  6. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 "China". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  8. CIA World Factbook [Gini rankings]
  9. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  10. "ICANN Board Meeting Minutes". ICANN. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Boum, Aomar (1999). Journal of Political Ecology: Case Studies in History and Society. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  12. "Communist Party of China in Brief". China Daily, 10 July 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  13. "GDP expands 11.4 percent, fastest in 13 years". 24 January 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Countries of the world ordered by land area". Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  15. The total area ranking relative to the United States depends on the measurement of the total areas of China and the United States. See List of countries and outlying territories by area for more information.
  16. Walton, Greg (2001). "Executive Summary". China's golden shield: Corporations and the development of surveillance technology in the People's Republic of China. Rights & Democracy. p. 5. ISBN 978-2-922084-42-9. Retrieved 29 August 2009. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  17. "Sino-British Joint Declaration". Retrieved 8 September 2008.
  18. "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 23 November 2009. Article 138. The capital of the People's Republic of China is Beijing.
  19. "Rivers and Lakes". Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  20. "Output, prices and jobs". The Economist. 28 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  21. Altucher, James (8 January 2010). "There's no stopping China". New York Post. Retrieved 2 August 2010.
  22. Muldavin, Joshua (9 February 2006). "From Rural Transformation to Global Integration: The Environmental and Social Impacts of China's Rise to Superpower". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  23. (Lt Colonel, USAF) Uckert, Merri B. (April 1995). "China as an Economic and Military Superpower: A Dangerous Combination?" (PDF). Maxwell Air Force Base, Alaabma: Air War College, Air University: 33. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. "China: the military giant in the making?". BBC. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  25. Bergsten, C. Fred; Gill, Bates; Lardy, Nicholas R.; Mitchell, Derek (17 April 2006). China: The Balance Sheet: What the World Needs to Know about the Emerging Superpower (Illustrated Hardcover ed.). PublicAffairs. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-58648-464-4.
  26. Wood, Francis, Did Marco Polo go to China? (1995), p. 61. ISBN 978-0-8133-8999-8.
  27. "China", Online Etymology Dictionary
  28. Eden, Richard, Decades of the New World (1555) "The great China whose kyng is thought the greatest prince in the world."
  29. "china", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Boston and New York, Houghton-Mifflin, 2000.
  30. Found in Book 2 of Kautilya's Arthashastra. (Denis Crispin Twitchett, Michael Loewe, John King Fairbank, The Ch'in and Han Empires 221 B.C.-A.D. 220, p. 20.)
  31. Martino, Martin, Novus Atlas Sinensis, Vienna 1655, Preface, p. 2.
  32. Liu, Lydia He, The Clash of Empires, p. 77.
  33. Wade, Geoff, "The Polity of Yelang and the Origin of the Name 'China'", Sino-Platonic Papers, No. 188, May 2009, p. 20.
  34. 尚書•梓材》:「皇天既付中國民越厥疆土于先王」 Roughly translated as "The Heavens awarded the lands and peoples of Zhōngguó to our ancestors".
  35. Endymion Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, Rev. and enl., 2000 ISBN 0-674-00247-4 ), 132.
  36. "Early Homo erectus Tools in China" by Archaeological Institute of America
  37. Ian Tattersall (1997). "Out of Africa again...and again?". Scientific American. 276 (4): 60–68. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0497-60.
  38. Shen, G; Gao, X; Gao, B; Granger, De (2009). "Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating". Nature. 458 (7235): 198–200. Bibcode:2009Natur.458..198S. doi:10.1038/nature07741. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 19279636. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  39. 39.0 39.1 CIA World Factbook. 20 April 2006. URL accessed 3 May 2006.
  40. "Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian".
  41. "Bronze Age China" by National Gallery of Art
  42. 42.0 42.1 Bodde, Derk. (1986). "The State and Empire of Ch'in", in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Lewis, Mark Edward (2007). The Early Chinese Empires: Qin and Han. London: Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02477-9.
  44. "Dahlman, Carl J; Aubert, Jean-Eric. China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st century. WBI Development Studies. World Bank Publications. Accessed January 30, 2008". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  45. Whiting, Marvin C., (2002). Imperial Chinese Military History. iUniverse. ISBN 0-595-22134-3
  46. Jacques Gernet, (1996). A history of Chinese civilization. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-49781-7. p.198
  47. Denis Crispin Twitchett, Michael Loewe, John King Fairbank, (1986). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0. p.375
  48. Ki-Baik Lee, (1984). A new history of Korea. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-61576-2. p.47
  49. David Andrew Graff, (2002). Medieval Chinese warfare, 300–900. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23955-9. p.13
  50. Adshead, S. A. M. (2004). T'ang China: The Rise of the East in World History. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1-4039-3456-8
  51. City University of HK Press, (2007). China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. City University of HK Press. ISBN 962–937–140–5. p.71
  52. Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors. London: Thames & Hudson, ISBN 0-500-05090-2. p. 136.
  53. Ping-ti Ho, "An Estimate of the Total Population of Sung-Chin China", in Études Song, Series 1, No 1, (1970) pp. 33–53.
  54. "Ming Dynasty[dead link]". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Archived 31 October 2009.
  55. Rice, Xan (25 July 2010). "Chinese archaeologists' African quest for sunken ship of Ming admiral". The Guardian.
  56. John M. Roberts (1997). A Short History of the World. Oxford University Press. p.272. ISBN 019511504X
  57. Ainslie Thomas Embree, Carol Gluck (1997). Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. M.E. Sharpe. p.597. ISBN 1563242656.
  58. Jenks, R.D. Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The Miao ‘Rebellion’, 1854–1873. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 1994.
  59. Cf. William J. Peterson, The Cambridge History of China Volume 9 (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
  60. Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1-74059-687-0
  61. Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  62. Perry, Elizabeth. Rebels and Revolutionaries in Northern China, 1845–1945 (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1980).
  63. The world's successful diasporas. Management Today. 3 April 2007.
  64. Dimensions of need – People and populations at risk. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
  65. Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History. Princeton University Press.
  66. China: Land of Famine. Journal of the Royal Institute of International Affairs.
  67. "Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan". BBC — History.
  68. Himeta, Mitsuyoshi (姫田光義) (日本軍による『三光政策・三光作戦をめぐって』) (Concerning the Three Alls Strategy/Three Alls Policy By the Japanese Forces), Iwanami Bukkuretto, 1996, Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2000
  69. "Judgement: International Military Tribunal for the Far East". Chapter VIII: Conventional War Crimes (Atrocities). November 1948.
  70. The Chinese people have stood up. UCLA Center for East Asian Studies. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
  71. Smith, Joseph; and Davis, Simon. [2005] (2005). The A to Z of the Cold War. Issue 28 of Historical dictionaries of war, revolution, and civil unrest. Volume 8 of A to Z guides. Scarecrow Press publisher. ISBN 0-8108-5384-1, ISBN 978-0-8108-5384-3.
  72. Madelyn Holmes (2008). "Students and teachers of the new China: thirteen interviews". McFarland. p. 185. ISBN 0-7864-3288-8. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
  73. Akbar, Arifa (17 September 2010). "Mao's Great Leap Forward 'killed 45 million in four years'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  74. Busky, Donald F. (2002). Communism in History and Theory. Greenwood Publishing Group, p.11.
  75. Chirot,Danil (1996). Modern Tyrants: The Power and Prevalence of Evil in Our Age. Princeton University Press. p.8. ISBN 0691027773
  76. Michael Y.M. Kao, "Taiwan's and Beijing's Campaigns for Unification," in Harvey Feldman, Michael Y.M. Kao, eds., Taiwan in the Time of Transition (New York: Paragon House, 1988), 188.
  77. Hart-Landsberg, Martin; and Burkett, Paul. "China and Socialism. Market Reforms and Class Struggle". Retrieved 30 October 2008.
  78. Youngs, R. The European Union and the Promotion of Democracy. Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-924979-4.
  79. Carroll, J. M. A Concise History of Hong Kong. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7425-3422-3.
  80. Nation bucks trend of global poverty (11 July 2003). China Daily
  81. China's Average Economic Growth in 90s Ranked 1st in World (1 March 2000). People's Daily.
  82. "China's Environmental Crisis". New York Times. 26 August 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  83. China worried over pace of growth. BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
  84. China: Migrants, Students, Taiwan. Migration News. January 2006.
  85. In Face of Rural Unrest, China Rolls Out Reforms. The Washington Post. 28 January 2006.
  86. "Frontline: The Tank Man transcript". Frontline. PBS. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2008.
  87. "The People's Republic of China" (7 September 2005). Foreign & Commonwealth Office
  88. ""Land area" '', Chinese Government's Official Web Portal". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  89. "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
  90. "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  91. "CIA – The World Factbook". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  92. Field Listing – Disputes – international, CIA World Factbook
  93. Mcquaid, Elwood (13 January 2011). "China, Tajikistan sign border agreement". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  94. The CIA has updated the total area of United States the number of times since the initial publication of the World Factbook. From 1989 through 1996, the total area of US was listed as 9,372,610 square kilometres (3,618,780 sq mi) (land area plus inland water only). The listed total area changed to 9,629,091 square kilometres (3,717,813 sq mi) in 1997 (with the Great Lakes areas and the coastal waters added), to 9,631,418 square kilometres (3,718,711 sq mi) in 2004, to 9,631,420 square kilometres (3,718,710 sq mi) in 2006, and to 9,826,630 square kilometres (3,794,080 sq mi) in 2007 (territorial waters added). Note: From 1989 to 1996, China was listed as the world's third-largest country by total area according to the CIA World Factbook. The United States replaced China in 1997 after additional water spaces were added.
  95. China's border with Pakistan falls in the disputed Kashmir province. The area under Pakistani-administration is claimed by India.
  96. "Gobi Desert Facts". Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  97. "Beijing hit by eighth sandstorm". BBC news. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  98. "The gathering sandstorm: Encroaching desert, missing water". The Independent. 9 November 2007.
  99. "Himalaya glaciers melting much faster". MSNBC. 24 November 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  100. "Biodiversity Theme Report". 10 December 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  101. Ma Xiaoying (2002) [2000]. Environmental Regulation in China. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  102. "Tackling China’s water crisis online"., 21 September 2006. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  103. "China's decade plan for water". The Earth Institute, Columbia University, 24 October 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
  104. Ma, Jun Li, Naomi (2006). "Tackling China's Water Crisis Online". Retrieved 18 February 2007.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  105. "300 million Chinese drinking unsafe water". People's Daily Online. 23 December 2004. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  106. "Flood Risk Ranking Reveals Vulnerable Cities". Science Daily. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  107. Friedman, Lisa (25 March 2010). "China Leads Major Countries With $34.6 Billion Invested in Clean Technology". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  108. Black, Richard (26 March 2010). "China steams ahead on clean energy". BBC News. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  109. Bradsher, Keith (30 January 2010). "China leads global race to make clean energy". New York Times.
  110. "China's big push for renewable energy". Scientific American, 4 August 2008. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  111. China tops the world in clean energy production. Ecosensorium. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  112. "Splashing out: China to spend 4 trillion yuan on water projects". Want China Times, 11 July 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  113. Randall Hoven, 7 November 2007. American Thinker. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  114. Cienciala, Anna (1996). The Rise and Fall of Communist Nations 1917–1994. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  115. 115.0 115.1 "Freedom House: Freedom in the World 2011: China".
  116. Constitution of the People's Republic of China. (1982)
  117. "BBC, Country Report: China". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  118. "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". People's Daily. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  119. Article 97 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
  120. "". Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  121. Unknown Author (2003). "Beijingers Get Greater Poll Choices". China Daily. Retrieved 18 February 2007.
  122. Lohmar, Bryan; and Somwaru, Agapi; Does China’s Land-Tenure System Discourage Structural Adjustment?, 1 May 2006. USDA Economic Research Service. Retrieved 3 May 2006.
  123. China sounds alarm over fast-growing gap between rich and poor. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
  124. "". 22 July 2008. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  125. Gwillim Law (2 April 2005). Provinces of China. Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  126. "Background Note: China". Bureau of Public Affairs. U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  127. "China and Sweden". Retrieved 15 June 2009. [dead link]
  128. Chang, Eddy (22 August 2004). Perseverance will pay off at the UN, The Taipei Times.
  129. "China says communication with other developing countries at Copenhagen summit transparent". People's Daily. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
  130. "Taiwan's Ma to stopover in US: report". Agence France-Presse. 11 January 2010.
  131. Macartney, Jane (1 February 2010). "China says US arms sales to Taiwan could threaten wider relations". The Times. London.
  132. Moore, Malcolm (8 January 2010). "China cancels UK human rights summit after Akmal Shaikh execution". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  133. Keith, Ronald C. China from the inside out – fitting the People's republic into the world. PlutoPress.
  134. "Ready to face the world?". The Economist. 6 March 1997. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  135. "China and Europe: A summit dominated by trade could get frosty". The Economist. 27 November 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
  136. "Energy to dominate Russia President Putin's China visit". BBC. 5 June 2012.
  137. Dillon, Dana; and Tkacik, John, Jr.; China’s Quest for Asia, Policy Review, December 2005 and January 2006, Issue No. 134. Retrieved 22 April 2006.
  138. "Clinton signs China trade bill". 10 October 2000
  139. "The China Trade Debate". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). 18 May 2000.
  140. "Bush woos China on trade", 30 May 2001, BBC News
  141. "US trade gap widens on increased Chinese imports". BBC News. 14 October 2010
  142. "Chinese President Hu Jintao resists Obama calls on yuan". BBC News. 13 April 2010.
  143. Malaysia's race rules. The Economist Newspaper Limited (25 August 2005). Requires login.
  144. Algeria: Xenophobia against Chinese on the rise in Africa. 5 August 2009.
  145. Looters shot dead amid chaos of Papua New Guinea's anti-Chinese riots. The Australian. 23 May 2009.
  146. Overseas and under siege. The Economist. 11 August 2009.
  147. Ramachandran, Sudha (27 January 2011). "China plays long game on border disputes". Asia Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  148. "China denies preparing war over South China Sea shoal". BBC, 12 May 2012.
  149. McLaughlin, Abraham; A rising China counters US clout in Africa, The Christian Science Monitor, 30 March 2005 edition.
  150. Lyman, Princeton N.; China’s Rising Role in Africa, 21 July 2005 Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved 26 June 2007.
  151. Politzer, Malia; China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration. Migration Information Source. August 2008
  152. "Is Brazil the derivative of China?", 24 August 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  153. "China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties"., 9 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  154. "BRICS summit ends in China". BBC, 14 April 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
  155. Khanna, Parag (27 January 2008). "Waving Goodbye to Hegemony". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  156. "China as the global power". University of Southern California US-China Institute. 13 November 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  157. Broughton, Philip Delves (23 January 2004). "The Dragon's catastrophic potential". The First Post. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  158. Sanders, Sol (29 June 2007). "China's utterly distorted economy is the train wreck waiting to happen". World Tribune. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  159. Williams, Ian (23 January 2004). "China-US: Double bubbles in danger of colliding". Asia Times. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  160. "Human Rights Watch, World Report 2009". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  161. Will the Boat Sink the Water?: The Life of China's Peasants / Chen Guidi and Wu Chuntao (2006) ISBN 1-58648-358-7
  162. Empire of Lies: The Truth About China in the Twenty-First Century / Guy Sorman (2008) ISBN 1-59403-216-5
  163. 163.0 163.1 Wingfield, Rupert (7 March 2006). "China's rural millions left behind". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  164. 164.0 164.1 Luard, Tim (10 November 2005). "China rethinks peasant apartheid". BBC News. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  165. Ni, Ching-Ching (30 December 2005). "". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  166.[dead link]
  167. "China ends school fees for 150m". BBC News. 13 December 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  168. Media Control in China published 2004 by Human Rights in China, New York. Revised edition 2006 published by Liming Cultural Enterprises of Taiwan
  169. "Freedom House: Freedom on the Net Report: China" (PDF).
  170. "Freedom House: Freedom of the Press Survey: China".
  171. "Reporters sans frontières – Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index – 2005". 30 April 2009. Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  172. 1998 US Embassy Beijing report "The Fading of Environmental Secrecy".[dead link] Retrieved 4 February 2007.
  173. 1997 US Embassy Beijing report "Environmental NGOs in China: Green is Good, But Don't Openly Oppose the Party".[dead link] Retrieved 4 February 2007.
  174. "Egypt not trending in China". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  175. "Internet Censorship in China". The New York Times (online). The New York Times Company. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  176. Fan, Maureen; Cha, Ariana Eunjung (24 December 2008). "China's Capital Cases Still Secret, Arbitrary". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 August 2010.
  177. "Amnesty sees hope in China on death penalty". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  178. 178.0 178.1 "China's Progress in Human Rights". July 2005. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
  179. "China's reform and opening-up promotes human rights, says premier". 11 December 2003. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the United States. Retrieved 28 April 2006.
  180. "China seeks to improve workplace safety". USA Today, 30 January 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  181. "Chinese Premier Wen Jiaabo talks reform, but most countrymen never get to hear what he says". Washington Post.
  182. Part I of summary of Zhou Tianyong's 2004 book Reform of the Chinese Political System[dead link] Accessed 7 February 2007.
  183. Part II of summary of Zhou Tianyong's 2004 book Reform of the Chinese Political System[dead link] Accessed 7 February 2007.
  184. China Seeks to Allay US Fears as Summit Nears (2006). Retrieved 15 April 2006.Template:Dead
  185. Military Expenditure Data. SIPRI. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  186. Annual Report To Congress – Military Power of the People’s Republic of China 2009 (PDF). Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  187. "China Military Power Report.indd" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  188. "China fury at US military report". BBC News. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  189. Nolt, James H. Analysis: The China-Taiwan military balance. Asia Times. Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  190. 190.0 190.1 China expanding its nuclear stockpile The Washington Times, 2011-08-25. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  191. Martin Andrew. "". Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  192. "". 28 March 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  193. "Early Eclipse: F-35 JSF Prospects in the Age of Chinese Stealth." China-Defense. Retrieved: 23 January 2011.
  194. "Chengdu J-20 – China’s 5th Generation Fighter." Defense Update. Retrieved: 23 January 2011.
  195. "China's first stealth fighter flies ahead of the pack after second prototype takes to the air". Daily Mail India, 22 May 2012.
  196. – Ground Forces. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  197. SinoDefence: Surface-to-air Missile System (2006). Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  198. "HQ-19 (S-400) (China) – Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems". 23 December 2008. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  199. China plays down fears after satellite shot down, Agence France-Presse via Channelnewsasia, 20 January 2007
  200. SinoDefence: Aircraft carrier programme (2006). Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  201. "China's first aircraft carrier completes sea trial". Xinhua News Agency. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
  202. China unveils fleet of submarines The Guardian, 2009-04-22. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  203. "GPS: China Flexes Military Muscle". CNN News. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
  204. "Shanghai's GDP grows 8.2% in 2011". China Daily, 20 January 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
  205. World Economic Outlook Dataabse – People's Republic of China Data. International Monetary Fund, September 2011 data. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  206. The Great Leap Forward. History Learning Site. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  207. "" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  208. "China is already the market economy—Long Yongtu, Secretary General of Boao Forum for Asia". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  209. Communism Is Dead, But State Capitalism Thrives, by Vahan Janjigian,, 22 March 2010.
  210. The Winners And Losers In Chinese Capitalism, by Gady Epstein,, 31 August 2010.
  211. "China's State-Planned Economy Is Doomed to Flop: David Pauly" Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 April 2011
  212. "China must be cautious in raising consumption". China Daily. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
  213. 16 August 2010, China Overtakes Japan as World's Second-Biggest Economy, Bloomberg
  214. "China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth". Chinability. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
  215. Walker, Andrew (16 June 2011). "Will China's Economy Stumble?". BBC. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  216. Joe Weisenthal (22 February 2011). "3G Countries". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  217. "Microsoft Word - UNWTO Barom07 2 en.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  218. 2011 China trade data., 12 January 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  219. "China's Foreign-Exchange Reserves Surge, Exceeding $2 Trillion". Bloomberg L.P. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  220. "China's forex reserves reach USD 2.85 trillion". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  221. "China must keep buying US Treasuries for now-paper". Reuters. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  222. "China now owns $1.16 trillion of U.S. debt". CBS News. 28 February 2011
  223. Washington learns to treat China with care. 29 July 2009.
  224. Hornby, Lucy (23 September 2009). "Factbox: US-China Interdependence Outweighs Trade Spat". Reuters. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
  225. "China FDI hits $115 billion in 2011, eases in December". CNBC, 5 January 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  226. 19 January 2011 p.ambre (19 January 2011). "China scores number one on FDI penetration, 16% rise in 2010". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  227. "Insight: Bullish China shops in industrial Germany". Reuters, 3 April 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  228. Nominal GDP comparison of China, Germany, France, Japan and USA. IMF World Economic Outlook, April 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
  229. "2007 trade surplus hits new record – $262.2B". China Daily. 11 January 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  230. "China widens yuan, non-dollar trading range to 3%". 23 September 2005. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  231. Intellectual Property Rights. Asia Business Council, September 2005. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  232. "MIT CIS: Publications: Foreign Policy Index". Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  233. Putting Democracy in China on Hold John Lee, The Center for Independent Studies. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
  234. (13 July 2005). "". People. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  235. "". BusinessWeek. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  236. "Microsoft Word - China2bandes.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  237. "China Is the Private-Sector Economy". BusinessWeek. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 27 March 2007.
  238. The Global Competitiveness Report 2009-2010 World Economic Forum. Retrieved on 24 September 2009.
  239. "2011 Index of Economic Freedom" The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 17 April 2011
  240. Retrieved on 27 July 2010.
  241. Global 500 2009, Financial Times, Retrieved on 12 August 2009.
  242. China’s 100 million strong middle-class need to be reached. Retrieved on 30 August 2009.
  243. One Person in Every 1700 in China has at least 10 Million Yuan[dead link] Hurun Report (14 April 2009). Retrieved on 4 March 2010.
  244. "China's billionaires double in number". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
  245. Total Retail Sales of Consumer Goods (2007.12) National Bureau of Statistics of China (13 March 2008). Retrieved on 21 November 2008.
  246. Super Rich have Craze for luxury goods China Daily (3 March 2010). Retrieved on 4 March 2010.
  247. "China inflation exceeding 6%". Businessweek, 14 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  248. "Steep rise in Chinese food prices". BBC, 16 April 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  249. 249.0 249.1 "China's GDP grows 9.1% in third quarter" Financial Times. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  250. "China Q1 GDP growth cools to 8.1 pct"., 17 April 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  251. "China manufacturing 'picking up', HSBC survey indicates". BBC. 24 July 2012.
  252. 252.0 252.1 "China Quick Facts". World Bank. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
  253. Swartz, Spencer; Oster, Shai (19 July 2010). "China Becomes World's Biggest Energy Consumer". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  254. Feller, Gordon. "China's Coal". ECOworld. Retrieved 19 July 2010.[dead link]
  255. "China have set the Renewable Energy Target of 10% of Electric Power Capacity by 2010". Reuters. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
  256. Wind power in the People's Republic of China
  257. Reuters: Russia in milestone oil pipeline supply to China. Reuters. 1 January 2011
  258. 258.0 258.1 Donald D. DeGlopper (1987), Chapter 9 – Science and Technology, A Country Study: China, Library of Congress. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  259. David Kang and Adam Segal, The Siren Song of Technonationalism, March 2006, Far Eastern Economic Review.
  260. "2011 Global R&D Funding Forecast",, 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  261. "China 'to overtake US on science' in two years". BBC News, 28 March 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  262. "Desperately seeking math and science majors". CNN, 29 July 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  263. "China publishes the second most scientific papers in international journals in 2010: report". Xinhua, 2 December 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  264. "Who's afraid of Huawei?". The Economist. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  265. "Shares in China's Lenovo rise on profit surge". New Straits Times. 17 August 2012.
  266. David Eimer, "China's huge leap forward into space threatens US ascendancy over heavens". The Telegraph, 5 November 2011.
  267. "Rocket launches Chinese space lab". BBC. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  268. "China could make moon landing in 2025". The Guardian, 20 September 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  269. LOUISE WATT, China's Space Program Shoots for Moon, Mars, Venus, Associated Press, 11 July 2011.
  270. "Squeezing cash from China's billion phone app market". BBC. 22 May 2012.
  271. "China August mobile phone users top 823 million". People's Daily. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  272. Barboza, David (26 July 2008). "China Surpasses US in Number of Internet Users". NY times. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
  273. "China's internet users breach half billion mark". Reuters, 11 January 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
  274. "China: 485 million internet users". TechNode, 20 July 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  275. China's online population rises to 477mn – Yahoo! News
  276. "Shanghai: Home to the slowest internet in all of China – Shanghaiist". 21 January 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  277. "Broadband provider rankings: The Rise and Rise of China". 28 July 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  278. "China's total mileage of expressways open to traffic reached 65,000 kilometers". People's Daily. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  279. "China auto sales officially surpass US in 2009, 13.6 million vehicles sold". Industry News. 8 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  280. "China premium car sector remains bright spot". Reuters, 23 April 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  281. "Japan's bullet train will have the top speed of 310 mph". Daily Mail. London. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  282. "China pushes ahead with high-speed rail". Financial Times, 27 December 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
  283. 283.0 283.1 "China boasts biggest high-speed rail network". Agence France-Presse via The Raw Story, 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
  284. "China's New Plan: A Great Leap Into The Air". NPR. 19 May 2012.
  285. "The final frontier". China Daily, 27 April 2012.
  286. 286.0 286.1 (2009). UNHD.
  287. Michael Bristow Beijing (28 April 2011). "China census shows population ageing and urban". BBC. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  288. Urban unemployment declines to 4% in China People's Daily Online (22 January 2008). Retrieved on 27 July 2008.
  289. "The New England Journal of Medicine, September 2005". doi:10.1056/NEJMhpr051833. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  290. "China to keep one-child policy". CNN. 10 March 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  291. 291.0 291.1[dead link]
  292. "The most surprising demographic crisis". The Economist. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  293. 293.0 293.1 "Chinese mainland gender ratios most balanced since 1950s: census data". Xinhua, 28 April 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  294. "Chinese facing shortage of wives". BBC News. 12 January 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
  295. Estimation of the Number of Missing Females in China: 1900–2000 page 20
  296. M. G. Merli and A. E. Raftery. 1990. "Are births under-reported in rural China? Manipulation of statistical records in response to China's population policies", Demography 37 (February): 109–126.
  297. Johansson, Sten; Nygren, Olga (1991). "The missing girls of China: the new demographic account". Population and Development Review. 17 (1): 35–51. doi:10.2307/1972351. JSTOR 1972351.
  298. Merli, M. Giovanna; Raftery, Adrian E. (2000). "Are births underreported in rural China?". Demography. 37 (1): 109 126.
  299. 299.0 299.1 "Chinese hiding three million babies the year". The Daily Telegraph, 30 May 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  300. National Bureau of Statistics (in Chinese). Retrieved 20 October 2011.
  301. 301.0 301.1 301.2 Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1). Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  302. "Major Figures on Residents from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan and Foreigners Covered by 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China, 29 April 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  303. Languages. 2005. URL accessed 3 May 2006.
  304. Sridhar, Asha (14 December 2011). "Round and about: Urban planning gone haywire". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
  305. Zhou Qun, Lin Yanhua. Nov. 2005/14441.html China's urbanization encounters "urban disease"[dead link], (中国新闻网), 11 November 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2005.
  306. Harney, Alexandra (3 February 2008). "Migrants are China's 'factories without smoke'". CNN. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  307. Tschang, Chi-Chu (4 February 2009). "A Tough New Year for China's Migrant Workers". Business Week. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  308. Francesco Sisci, "China's floating population the headache for census", The Straits Times, 22 September 2000.
  309. Factbox: Education in China (2008). China-Arab Education Information Network
  310. China pledges free 9-year education in rural west (21 February 2006). China Economic Net.
  311. "CIA – The World Fact Book". Retrieved 14 May 2010.
  312. Plafker, Ted, China's Long—but Uneven—March to Literacy[dead link] International Herald Tribune
  313. "Where And Who Are The World's Illiterates: China". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  314. Premier Wen announces hefty educational investment (2007). Retrieved 6 March 2007.
  315. "China Beats Out Finland for Top Marks in Education". TIME.
  316. 2005 Chinese University Ranking unveiled (21 February 2005). China Daily. Retrieved 16 April 2006.
  317. All-around Ranking (2003). Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  318. China AIDS Survey at Yahoo. Retrieved 18 April 2006.
  319. "Population Growth in China : The Basic Characteristics of China's Demographic Transition" (PDF). Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  320. "China". CIA World Factbook, 16 May 2008
  321. China’s Infant Mortality Rate Down. 11 September 2001. CHINA.ORG.CN. URL accessed 3 May 2006.
  322. "Nutrition country profiles: China summary". Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  323. Noam N. Levey (12 May 2012). "Global push to guarantee health coverage leaves U.S. behind". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  324. "Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth". CIA. 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  325. "Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate". CIA. 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
  326. McGregor, Richard (2 July 2007). "750,000 the year killed by Chinese pollution". Financial Times. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
  327. "Smoking 'will kill one third of young Chinese men'". 16 August 2001. Honolulu Community College. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  328. "China's Tobacco Industry Wields Huge Power" article by Didi Kirsten Tatlow in The New York Times 10 June 2010
  329. "Serving the people?". 1999. Bruce Kennedy. CNN. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  330. "Obesity Sickening China's Young Hearts". 4 August 2000. People's Daily. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  331. "China’s latest SARS outbreak has been contained, but biosafety concerns remain". 18 May 2004. World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  332. "China 'buried smog death finding'". BBC News. 3 July 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  333. John Vidal and David Adam (19 June 2007). "China overtakes US as world's biggest CO2 emitter". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  334. "China says water pollution so severe that cities could lack safe supplies". China Daily. 7 June 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  335. Kahn, Joseph (26 August 2007). "As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes". The New York Times. China. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  336. "Air Pollution in Yixian". Air Pollution in Yixian. 1900-1-0. Retrieved 25 May 2010. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  337. 337.0 337.1 337.2 "Asia-Pacific | Survey finds 300 metres (980 ft) China believers". BBC News. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  338. "Nonreligious, continued..." Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  339. "China Beliefs". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  340. Buddhism in China., 22 April 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  341. "China culture exploring assistant". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  342. "Buddhists in the world". Retrieved 15 June 2009. [dead link]
  343. "How Now Tao?". Asia Sentinel. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  344. "Alliance of Religions and Conservation (ARC)" (PDF). Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  345. "Religions and Beliefs in China". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  346. "Society for Anglo Chinese Understanding". SACU. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  347. "Index-China Chinese Philosophies and religions". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  348. "Memories of Dr. Wu Lien-teh, plague fighter". Yu-lin Wu (1995). World Scientific. p.68. ISBN 981-02-2287-4
  349. "Buddhism". Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  350. "International Religious Freedom Report 2007 – China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  351. "Buddhism in China". AskAsia. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  352. "TheAmericanForum For Global Education". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  353. "US Department of States – International Religious Freedom Report 2006: China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  354. Macintosh, R. Scott. China's prosperity inspires rising spirituality (9 March 2006). Retrieved 15 April 2006.
  355. Watts, Jonathan (7 February 2007). "Christian population in China". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 August 2007.
  356. "China Survey Reveals Fewer Christians than Some Evangelicals Want to Believe". 1 October 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  357. "Sons of heaven". The Economist. 2 October 2008.
  358. 358.0 358.1 "Christians in China: Is the country in spiritual crisis?" BBC News, 12 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
  359. God and Caesar in China: policy implications of church-state tensions. Google Books. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  360. "Discipling the Dragon: Christian Publishing Finds Success in China". Christianity Today, 20 January 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  361. "BBC Islam in China (650–present)". BBC News. 2 October 2002. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  362. Islamic culture in China – amended 1958 text. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  363. "Looking East: The challenges and opportunities of Chinese Islam".[dead link]
  364. Counting up the number of people of traditionally Muslim nationalities who were enumerated in the 1990 census gives the total of 17.6 million, 96% of whom belong to just three nationalities: Hui 8.6 million, Uyghurs 7.2 million, and Kazakhs 1.1 million. Other nationalities that are traditionally Muslim include Kyrghyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Tatars, Salar, Bonan, and Dongxiang. See Dru C. Gladney, "Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism?", Paper presented at Symposium on Islam in Southeast Asia and China, Hong Kong, 2002. Available at The 2000 census reported the total of 20.3 million members of Muslim nationalities, of which again 96% belonged to just three groups: Hui 9.8 million, Uyghurs 8.4 million, and Kazakhs 1.25 million.
  365. "CIA – The World Factbook – China". Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  366. "China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)". Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  367. "NW China region eyes global Muslim market". China Daily. 9 July 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  368. "Muslim Media Network". Muslim Media Network. 24 March 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  369. Xinhua, China Bans Falun Gong, People's Daily, 22 July 1999
  370. Mary-Anne Toy, Underground existence for Falun Gong faithful, The Age, 26 July 2008.
    "The US State Department, US Congress, the United Nations and human rights groups such as Amnesty say persecution of Falun Gong practitioners in China is the continuing abuse of human rights."
  371. Xu Jiatun, Cultural Revolution revisited in crackdown, Taipai Times, 8 September 1999.
  372. Seth Faison, "In Beijing: A Roar of Silent Protestors," New York Times, 27 April 1999
  373. "Falun Gong said to total tens of millions". United Press International, 24 April 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  374. "Tour Guidebook: Beijing". China National Tourism Administration.
  375. Bary, Theodore de. "Constructive Engagement with Asian Values".[dead link] Columbia University.
  376. ""China: Traditional arts". Library of Congress – Country Studies". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  377. "China: Cultural life: The arts". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  378. ""China: Folk and Variety Arts". Library of Congress – Country Studies". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  379. "Silk Route Museum". Silk Route Museum. Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  380. Kong, Foong, Ling. [2002]. The Food of Asia. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-7946-0146-4
  381. "Origins of the Great Game". Retrieved 1 November 2011.
  382. "Chinese players dominate at Malaysia open chess championship"., 2 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  383. "Tai Chi Helps Seniors Live Fuller Lives". China On The Brink. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  384. Beech, Hannah (28 April 2003). "Yao Ming". Time Magazine. Retrieved 30 March 2007.
  385. "China health club market – Huge potential & challenges". China Sports Business. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  386. Qinfa, Ye. Sports History of China. Retrieved 21 April 2006.
  387. "China targets more golds in 2012". BBC Sport, 27 August 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Meng, Fanhua (2011). Phenomenon of Chinese Culture at the Turn of the 21st century. Singapore: Silkroad Press. ISBN 978-981-4332-35-4.
  • Farah, Paolo, Five Years of China’s WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives on China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Kluwer Law International, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 263–304, 2006. Abstract.
  • Heilig, Gerhard K., China Bibliography – Online. 2006, 2007.
  • Sang Ye (2006). China Candid: The People on the People's Republic. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24514-8.
  • Selden, Mark (1979). The People's Republic of China: Documentary History of Revolutionary Change. New York: Monthly Review Press. ISBN 0-85345-532-5.

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 35°N 103°E / 35°N 103°E / 35; 103{{#coordinates:}}: cannot have more than one primary tag per page

Template:People's Republic of China topics