Lua error in Module:Infobox_radar at line 36: attempt to call field 'simple' (a nil value). Dnestr radar (Template:Lang-ru) and Dnepr radar (Template:Lang-ru) (NATO: Hen House) [note 1] are the first generation of Soviet space surveillance and early warning radar. They are phased array radars designed to give early warning of attack from ballistic missiles. The network consisted of a number of radars on the periphery of the Soviet Union to cover attacks from different directions and were intended to be replaced by Daryal radars. Only two of the planned Daryal radars became operational, due to issues such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In common with other Soviet and Russian early warning radars they are named after rivers, the Dnestr and the Dnepr. Template:Asof the Russian early warning network still consists of some radars of this vintage. It is likely that all the existing radars will be replaced by the third generation Voronezh radars by 2020.
TsSO-P[edit | edit source]
The Dnestr radar came from work on ballistic missile defence undertaken in the late 1950s and early 1960s. System A, the prototype for the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system was set up in the Sary Shagan testing grounds, in the Kazakh SSR.:123 Work on the system was led by design bureau KB-1 which proposed using VHF radar RTN (Template:Lang-rus) and the Dunay-2 UHF radar. Other alternatives were sought from Soviet industry and RTI proposed using VHF radar TsSO-P (Template:Lang-rus) and UHF radar TsSS-30 (Template:Lang-rus).
TsSO-P (standing for Template:Lang-rus meaning central detection station - test site) was selected for further development, together with the Dunay-2. TsSO-P had a long horn antenna 250 metres (820 ft) long and 15 metres (49 ft) high. It had an array with an open ribbed structure and used 200 millisecond pulses. Hardware methods were designed for signal processing as the intended M-4 computer could not run the radar. It was built at area 8 in Sary Shagan and was located at . It first detected an object on 17 September 1961. 
Dnestr[edit | edit source]
TsSO-P was effective at satellite tracking and was chosen as the radar of the Istrebitel Sputnik (IS) anti-satellite programme. This involved two sites separated in latitude to form a radar field 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) long and 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) high. The two sites chosen were at the village of Mishelevka near Irkutsk in Siberia, which was called OS-1, and at Cape Gulshad on Lake Balkhash near Sary Shagan, which was called OS-2. Each site received four Dnestr radars in a fan arrangement.:421:433
A Dnestr radar was composed of two TsSO-P radar wings joined together by a two story building containing a joint computer system and command post. Each radar wing covered a 30 degree sector with a 0.5 degree scanning beam. The elevation scanning pattern was a 'spade' with a width of 20 degrees. The radars were arranged to create a fan shaped barrier. Of the four radars, called cells (Template:Lang-rus roughly radio location cell), two faced to the west and two faced to the east. All scanned between 10 degrees and 90 degrees.
Construction at the two sites started between 1962 and 1963 with improvements in the TsSO-P test model being fed back into the deployed units. They gained an M-4 2-M computer with semiconductors, although the rest of the radar used valves. The radars were completed in late 1966 with the fourth Dnestr at Balkhash being used for testing. A satellite, DSP-1Yu, was launched to test the ability of the radars.
Dnestr-M[edit | edit source]
In parallel with the implementation of the Dnestr space surveillance units a modified version, Dnestr-M radar, was being developed to act as an early warning radar to identify attacks by ballistic missiles. The first two were built at Murmansk in northern Russia (Olenegorsk - RO-1) and near Riga in the then Latvian SSR (Skrunda - RO-2). They constituted the beginning of the Soviet SPRN network, the equivalent of the NATO BMEWS.:421
The first Dnestr-M at Olenegorsk was completed by 1968.  In 1970 the radars at Olenegorsk and Skrunda, and an associated command centre were accepted for service. According to Podvig (2002) it seems they were located to identify missile launches from NATO submarines in the Norwegian and North Seas. 
The Dnestr-M included many improvements over the previous versions such as an increase in the pulse length from 200ms to 800ms which increased the range of objects identified, more semiconductors, and also many scanning and processing changes.
A version of this radar was built at the Sary Shagan test site and was called TsSO-PM (Template:Lang-rus). After this had completed tests in 1965 it was decided to upgrade nodes 1 and 2 of the two OS sites to Dnestr-M, keeping nodes 3 and 4 as Dnestr. These radars remained as space surveillance radars which scanned between 10 and 90 degrees, compared to scanning between 10 and 30 degrees for the missile warning radars. A space surveillance network of four Dnestrs and four Dnestr-Ms, and two command posts was put on alert in 1971.
Dnepr[edit | edit source]
Work to improve the radar continued. An improved array was designed which covered 60 degrees rather than 30. The first Dnepr radar was built at Balkhash as a new radar, cell 5. It entered service on 12 May 1974. The second was a new early warning station at Sevastopol. New Dneprs were also built at Mishelevka and another at Skrunda, and then one at Mukachevo. The remaining radars were all converted to Dnepr with the exception of cells 3 and 4 at Balkhash and Mishelevka which remained space surveillance radars. :422
Technical details[edit | edit source]
Each Dnepr array is a double sectoral horn antenna 250m long by 12 m wide. It has two rows of slot radiators within two waveguides. At each end of the two arrays there is a set of transmitting and receiving equipment. It emits a signal covering a sector 30 degrees in azimuth and 30 degrees in elevation, with the scanning controlled by frequency. Four sets mean the radar covers 120 degrees in azimuth and 30 degrees in elevation (5 to 35 degrees).
Current status[edit | edit source]
Template:GeoGroupTemplate These radars have been installed at six different radar stations and as of 2012 are operational at three - Balkhash, Mishelevka and Olenegorsk. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty required that early warning radars were located on the periphery of national territory and faced outwards. This caused problems when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 as many of the radar stations were now in newly independent states.  The first station to close was Skrunda, in newly independent Latvia. A 1994 agreement between Russia and Latvia agreed that the two Dnepr radars there would stop working in 1998, and would be fully demolished by 2000.:129:65:426
Russia signed an agreement with Ukraine in 1992 allowing it to continue using the Dnepr radars at Sevastopol and Mukachevo. The stations were run by Ukrainian personnel and data was sent to the headquarters of the Russian early warning system in Solnechnogorsk. In 2008 Russia announced that it was pulling out of the agreement with Ukraine and that the last data given to Russia from the stations would be in 2009.:76 The Ukrainian government announced that the stations were to be used part time for space surveillance.
The remaining stations in Russia are due to be replaced by the Voronezh radar. The Dneprs in Mishelevka, Irkutsk will close once the second array of the new Voronezh radar is operational.. The Dnepr at Olenegorsk, Murmansk will be replaced by a Voronezh as well. It is planned to start construction there in 2017.
|OS-1||Mishelevka Radar Station, Usolye-Sibirskoye, Irkutsk, Siberia||135||Dnestr||1964-1976||Modernised to Dnestr-M and then Dnepr late 70s. Operational|
|135||Dnestr||1964-1970||Modernised to Dnestr-M. Decommissioned 1990s. Derelict.|
|265||Dnestr||1964-1968||Modernised to Dnestr-M. Used for research since 1993 - now an incoherent scatter radar|
|265||Dnestr||1964-1968||Modernised to Dnestr-M. Decommissioned 1990s. Derelict.|
|70, 200||Dnepr||1967-1972||Modernised to Dnepr 1976. Operational|
|OS-2||Balkhash Radar Station, Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan||270||Dnestr||1964-1970||Modernised to Dnestr-M. Operation 1970. Decommissioned September 1995. Derelict. |
|270||Dnestr||1964-1968||Operational 1968. Decommissioned January 1984. Derelict.|
|60||Dnestr||1964-1968||Operational 1968. Decommissioned January 1984. Derelict.|
|60||Dnestr||1964-1968||Operational 1968. Decommissioned September 1988. Derelict.|
|180, 124||Dnepr||1968-1972||Operational 1972. Modernised to Dnepr. Operational from 1974.|
|RO-1||Olenegorsk-1, Olenegorsk, Russia||323, 293||Dnestr-M||1963-1968||Operational. Works with the Daugava radar, a prototype of the Daryal radar|
|RO-2||Skrunda-1, Latvia||323, 293||Dnestr-M||1963-1968||Demolished 1998|
|8, 248||Dnepr||1968-1976||Demolished 1998|
|RO-4||Sevastopol Radar Station, Crimea, Ukraine||172, 230||Dnepr||1968-1979||Transferred to Ukrainian control in 1992. Closed 2009. Replaced by Voronezh radar in Armavir. Derelict?|
|RO-5||Mukachevo Radar Station, Ukraine||196, 260||Dnepr||1968-1979||Transferred to Ukrainian control in 1992. Closed 2009. Replaced by Voronezh radar in Armavir. Derelict?|
Notes[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "Incoherent Scatter Radar". East Siberian Center for the Earth's Ionosphere Research. 2002-06-25. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- "«Днепр» на Балхаше" ["Dnepr" in Balkhash] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. July 2009. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
- "Мощные РЛС дальнего обнаружения РЛС СПРН и СККП" [Powerful radar early warning radar early warning system and space surveillance] (in Russian). RTI Mints. undated. Retrieved 2012-01-30. Check date values in:
- Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (pdf). Science and Global Security 10: 21–60. doi:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN 0892-9882.
- Forden, Geoffrey (May 3, 2001). "Reducing a Common Danger: Improving Russia's Early-Warning System" (PDF). Cato Policy Analysis No. 399 (Cato Institute).
- Zaloga, Steven (2002). The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword: The Rise and Fall of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces 1945-2000. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 978-1588340078.
- Ivantsov, Viktor (undated). "От «Днестра» до «Днепра»" [From Dnestr to Dnepr] (in Russian). VKO. Retrieved 2012-07-22. Check date values in:
- O'Connor, Sean (2009). "Russian/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems". Air Power Australia. Retrieved 2012-01-07.
- "Hen House". Federation of American Scientists. undated. Retrieved 2012-01-27. Check date values in:
- Bukharin, Oleg; Kadyshev, Timur; Miasnikov, Eugene; Podvig, Pavel; Sutyagin, Igor; Tarashenko, Maxim; Zhelezov, Boris (2001). Podvig, Pavel, ed. Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-16202-4.
- Votintsev, Yu.V. (1993). "Unknown Troops of the Vanished Superpower". VOYENNO-ISTORICHESKIY ZHURNAL 11: 12–27.
- Karpenko, A (1999). "ABM AND SPACE DEFENSE". Nevsky Bastion 4: 2–47.
- Potekhin, Anna (2011-01-16). "Зелёных вам фонарей!" [Green light for you!] (in Russian). Красная звезда [Krasnaya Zvezda]. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- "Модернизация радаров СПРН в Северо-Западном округе начнется в 2015 году" [Upgrading early warning radars in the Northwest District will begin in 2015] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 2011-12-12. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
- Marinin, I (2011). "Отечественной СПРН – 40 лет" [Patriotic SPRN - 40 years] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Marinin, I (2011). "Отечественной СПРН – 40 лет" [Patriotic SPRN - 40 years]. Novosti Kosmonavtiki (in Russian) (Eastview) (339): 44–46. ISSN 1561-1078.Template:Subscription required
- Chandra, Ramesh (2004). Minority: Social and Political Conflict. Delhi, India: Isha Books. ISBN 978-81-8205-140-9.
- Hadonina, Dzidra (1998). "Environmental Situation and Remediation Plans of Military Sites in Latvia". In Fonnun, F; Reimer, K; Zeeb, B. Environmental Contamination and Remediation Practices at Former and Present Military Bases. Springer. pp. 63–69. ISBN 978-0792352471.
|last2=in Editors list (help)
- Wilk, Andrzej (2008-01-29). "Russia starts to dismantle the Soviet early warning system". Centre for Eastern Studies. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
- Kramnik, Ilya (2009-02-26). "Арифметика СПРН: минус два "Днепра", плюс один "Воронеж"" [Early warning arithmetic: minus two Dnepr, plus one Voronezh] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- "Russia to stop using Ukrainian radars". RIA Novosti. 2008-02-04. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Baev, Pavel (2010). "Neither Reform nor Modernisation: the Armed Forces Under and After Putin's Command". In Galeotti, Mark. The Politics of Modern Security in Russia. Ashgate. pp. 69–88. ISBN 978-0-7546-7408-5.
- Podvig, Pavel (2009-02-12). "Armavir radar fills the gap". Russian strategic nuclear forces. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
- "Ukrainian radars withdrawn from operation in Russia's interests to undergo technical maintenance". Kyiv Post. 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- "Source: Ukraine radar to be used to protect German satellites". Kyiv Post. 2010-02-09. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- Davletgalieva, Anel; Konovalov, Ivan (2010). "CITIZENS OF KAZAKHSTAN WERE HEAPED UP WITH DEBRIS OF THE USSR". Defence & Security (Eastview) (9).Template:Subscription required
- "Russia Turns on New Missile Warning Radar". RIA Novosti. 2012-05-23. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
- Podvig, Pavel (2011-06-21). "Daryal-U radar in Mishelevka demolished". Russian strategic nuclear forces. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Holm, Michael (2011). "46th independent Radio-Technical Unit". Soviet Armed Forces 1945-1991. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Holm, Michael (2011). "49th independent Radio-Technical Unit". Soviet Armed Forces 1945-1991. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
- "Вручение знамени 16601" [Presentation of the Flag 16601] (video) (in Russian). Zvezda News. 2010-12-12. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
- SityShooter (2011). "РЛС "Днестр" - "Днепр-М" (actually is Daugava left)" [Radar Dnestr-Dnepr-M] (photograph) (in Russian). Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- "Всевидящий глаз России" [Seeing Eye Russia]. Novosti Kosmonavtiki (in Russian) (Eastview) (5): 52–53. May 2009. Template:Subscription required
- "Russia Won't Rent Ukrainian Radar". Kommersant. 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Haiworonski, Oleksa (2010-11-07). ""Dniepr" radiolocation unit at Cape Chersones" (photograph). Panoramio. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
- Podvig, Pavel (2008-08-25). "Russia pulls out of an early-warning arrangement with Ukraine". Russian strategic nuclear forces. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
[edit | edit source]
- Set of photos from inside the Balkhash Dnepr from Novosti Kosmonavtiki, July 2009
- Set of photos of an Irkutsk Dnepr from Novosti Kosmonavtiki, May 2012